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  Citation statistics : Table of Contents
   2017| April-June  | Volume 9 | Issue 2  
    Online since May 26, 2017

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Trauma from occlusion: The overstrain of the supporting structures of the teeth
Dhirendra Kumar Singh, Md Jalaluddin, Ranjan Rajeev
April-June 2017, 9(2):126-132
Any occlusal force which goes beyond the adaptive capacity of our periodontium causes injury to periodontal structures, and the resultant trauma is called as trauma from occlusion (TFO), several schools of thoughts are there that whether TFO is an etiological factor or cofactor for the occurrence of periodontal diseases. Present review paper is an effort to clear the actual concept of TFO along with its historical background, etiological factors, relevant terminologies, signs and symptoms, and advanced diagnostic methods.
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Effect of scaling and root planing on blood counts in patients with chronic generalized periodontitis
Devinder Singh Kalsi, Anchal Sood, Simran Mundi, Vikrant Sharma
April-June 2017, 9(2):109-113
Background: Many systemic diseases have been implicated as risk factors in periodontal disease. Studies suggest that periodontal infection can adversely affect systemic health; by inference periodontal disease will also have an effect on blood values, but the data available is not conclusive. Aim: This clinical study was designed to evaluate the effect of treatment of plaque induced periodontitis on commonly assessed blood parameters. Materials and Method: 37 males and 31 females aged between 20 and 50 years in good general health but suffering from plaque induced chronic periodontitis were selected for the study. The selected patients were assessed for ESR, TLC, PMN count, lymphocyte count from DLC, HB, BT and their periodontal condition before the start of the study. SCRP was carried out and patients were reassessed for the same clinical and hematological parameters 21 days after the periodontal therapy (SCRP). Results: A highly significant reduction in the counts of PMNs and the values of ESI was seen after SCRP. Furthermore a significant reduction in TLC, lymphocytes count, and BT and a non significant decrease in Hb were also observed. Conclusion: SCRP done in patients of chronic periodontitis has a considerable affect on the assessed blood parameters.
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Comparison of middle phalanx of the middle finger and cervical vertebrae as skeletal maturity indicators
Pavitra Tripura Javangula, KS Uloopi, C Vinay, Chandrasekhar Rayala, N Manikya Kumar, S Pavani Chandra
April-June 2017, 9(2):84-87
Objectives: To investigate the relationship between chronological age and the stages of maturation of cervical vertebrae maturation index (CVMI) and the middle phalanx of the middle finger (MP3) and to determine the correlation between CVMI and MP3. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study included 100 children (boys - 50, girls - 50) aged 8–14 years based on nonprobability quota sampling. The study included digital radiographs of the MP3 of the right hand and conventional lateral cephalograms. Chronological age was assessed by the date of birth, MP3 maturation by Rajagopal and Kansal's criteria, and CVMI development by Hassel and Farman's method. Statistical Analysis: Spearman's rank-order correlation coefficient was applied to measure the association between stages of MP3 and CVMI. Results: Progressive stages of MP3 and CVMI were seen as chronological age advanced. Girls showed an advanced trend than boys in both MP3 and CVMI stages. MP3 and CVMI stages showed a strong positive correlation (r + 0.836, P < 0.01). Conclusions: MP3 and CVMI both are equally good indicators of skeletal maturity. Assessment of skeletal maturity on lateral cephalogram (CVMI) is advantageous as it avoids the need for an additional radiograph.
  1 2,598 418
New dimensions in mechanical plaque control: An overview
Arnab Mandal, Dhirendra Kumar Singh, Humaira Siddiqui, Diptajit Das, Arka Kanti Dey
April-June 2017, 9(2):133-139
Plaque control is the daily removal of dental plaque, oral biofilm and also prevention of their accumulation on the teeth and other parts of oral cavity. Dental plaque is the major etiology of maximum gingival and periodontal diseases. It is also related with various dental problems. Mechanical plaque control is a very effective method to get rid of plaque accumulation in oral cavity. In 3000 BC there was the first toothbrush invented by human beings. With time several modifications came in toothbrushes to make mechanical plaque control more effective in day to day oral hygiene practice. This article emphasizes on the advanced and emerging tools in mechanical plaque control methods in attaining an optimal level of oral hygiene standards and maintenance of oral health.
  1 13,286 1,942
Double dens evaginatus on permanent maxillary first molar: A case report of this rare occurrence
Narbir S Thakur, Seema Thakur
April-June 2017, 9(2):114-116
Dens evaginatus (DE) is a developmental aberration of a tooth resulting in the formation of an accessory cusp. This uncommon anomaly projects above the adjacent tooth surface, exhibiting enamel covering a dentinal core that usually contains pulp tissue. DE usually occurs in mandibular premolars. The most comprehensive grouping of DE on premolars has been done by Schulze (1987). DE may pose various dental problems to clinicians. This case report describes a very rare case of double DE on the permanent maxillary first molar of 14-year-old boy. Till date, there is no such documented case. The deep caries of this tooth was restored.
  - 3,472 216
An esthetic space maintainer for future prosthesis in growing patients
Amol A Verulkar, Gurpreet Kaur, Anand A Tripathi, Manmohit Singh
April-June 2017, 9(2):117-118
The treatment of congenitally/missing teeth at young age is unique challenges to the dental profession and often requires a coordinated interdisciplinary approach to achieve optimal esthetic and functional results. Space maintainers in orthodontics has widely played key role in early maintenance of space till growth ceases. In growing patients for aesthetics purpose the tooth colored material use provide additional patients compliance till it gets future prosthesis like implants. Here; the article gave unique type of space maintainer for growing patients.
  - 1,108 218
A fixed partial appliance approach towards treatment of anterior single tooth crossbite: Report of two cases
M Gawthaman, Patil Disha, V Mahesh Mathian, S Vinodh
April-June 2017, 9(2):119-121
Crossbite can be treated using both removable and fixed appliances. This paper describes the report of two cases by a method of treating anterior single tooth in crossbite which is locked out of arch form with a simple fixed partial appliance. Orthodontic treatment was initiated by creating space for the locked out incisor using open coil spring and further corrected using MBT brackets and nitinol archwire for alignment. Treatment goals were achieved, and esthetics and occlusion were maintained postoperatively. Treatment objectives were obtained within a short duration using this technique, and there was an improvement in patients' smile.
  - 8,620 766
Multidisciplinary treatment of a fractured maxillary central incisor
Praveen Kumar Neela, Vasu Murthy Sesham, Pavan Kumar Mamillapalli, Hari Kumar Vemisetty
April-June 2017, 9(2):122-125
Subgingivally fractured incisors are still a challenge to treat. Restoration of severely damaged teeth requires careful attention and comprehensive preplanned treatment. Here, a patient who had traumatic injury to the upper left central incisor which led to an oblique fracture involving enamel, dental and extending into the root below the gingival margin was saved from extraction by accelerated forced eruption of a root portion, allowing placement of crown, and eliminating the need for a fixed partial denture. A tooth otherwise would have gone for extraction routinely was thus saved and restored through a multidisciplinary approach by a combined orthodontic, periodontal and endodontic treatment.
  - 1,364 200
Evaluation of the mechanical properties of high impact denture base resin with different polymer to monomer ratios: An In vitro study
Sheen Juneja Arora, Aman Arora, Viram Upadhyaya, Aditi Goyal
April-June 2017, 9(2):67-72
Aim: This study aims to evaluate the flexural strength, hardness, and impact strength of heat-cured high-impact denture base resins with different polymer/monomer ratios. Materials and Methods: A total of 150 acrylic samples were prepared using high impact denture base resin (Travelon Hi). The samples were divided into five groups based on different powder/liquid ratios (g/ml) with 30 samples in each group. The P/L ratio in Group 1 (Ratio - 2.2:1) was the manufacturer's recommended ratio and was used as control. In Group 2, the ratio was 2.7:1, in Group 3, the ratio was 3.2:1, in Group 4, the ratio was 1.9:1, and Group 5 the ratio was 1.6:1. Each group with 30 samples was further subdivided into three different subgroups comprising 10 samples each, based on the properties to be evaluated, i.e., for flexural strength, hardness, and impact strength evaluation. The samples were tested for flexural strength, Vicker's hardness number (VHN) and impact strength. One-way ANOVA including post hoc-Tukey's tests was used to calculate the difference of means for quantitative variables and for intergroup comparison as well. Results: The results showed that the flexural strength values and VHN values showed a similar trend. The values decreased significantly as the ratio was increased or decreased from the control group. The results also showed that there was nonsignificant difference between the mean impact strength values for all the groups. Conclusion: For reinforced resins or high impact resins, the manufacturer's recommended polymer/monomer mixing ratio should be used to obtain the appropriate strength of the material.
  - 3,770 565
Knowledge and attitude toward “basic life support” in dental college
Saurabh Goel, Girish Chaudhary, Sameer Kaura, Gayathri Marria
April-June 2017, 9(2):73-78
Aims: The aim of the study was to assess and compare the level of knowledge and attitude toward “basic life support (BLS)” among BDS students (3rd prof., final prof., and interns). Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was distributed among 190 students of the dental college. It had three sections that included demographic data and qualification, knowledge of participants regarding BLS, and attitude toward BLS. Statistical Analysis Used: ANOVA test (to compare knowledge score of students at various academic levels) and Student's t-test (to compare knowledge score of males and females) were used for statistical analysis. Results: One hundred and ninety students completed the survey with a response rate of 77.9%. We found that the mean knowledge score of males (7.09) was significantly higher than the mean knowledge score of females (6.07) (P = 0.02). We also deduced that the knowledge score was relatively higher among interns than the final and third prof. students. Nearly 96.8% volunteers were of the view that all dental students and clinicians must know about BLS and the training for the same must be given to them. Conclusions: We concluded that dental students had a positive attitude toward BLS while they were severely lacking in the knowledge of it.
  - 2,068 325
Knowledge and attitude of indian population toward “self-perceived halitosis”
Saurabh Goel, Girish Chaudhary, DS Kalsi, Sumit Bansal, Deepali Mahajan
April-June 2017, 9(2):79-83
Aims: The aim of this study was to assess the level of knowledge and attitude of Indian population toward self-perceived halitosis, about its possible causes, available treatments, its influence on social relations and level of confidence. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was distributed among 200 people in the outpatient department of Dental Hospital. It had four sections that included sociodemographic data, presence or absence of medical conditions and habits, knowledge about causes and treatment of malodor, oral hygiene practices, whether the subject had halitosis and measures employed to manage the condition, its influence on social relations, and level of confidence. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi-square test. Results: A total of 200 subjects were participated in the study. The prevalence of self-perceived halitosis was 52.5%. There was a significant association between knowledge about causes such as certain foods (P = 0.0004) and tongue coating (P = 0.002) with self-perceived malodor. There were significant associations between self-perceived halitosis and hesitation to talk to other people (P = 0.002) and uneasy feeling when someone was nearby (P = 0.010). Most of the respondents (61.25%) were not willing to visit a dentist or a physician for the condition. Conclusions: The Indian population lacked the knowledge regarding self-perceived halitosis. They had a negative attitude toward it as well.
  - 1,919 274
Coverage of localized gingival recession using coronally advanced flap: A comparison between microsurgical and macrosurgical techniques
Sweta Kumari Singh, Nikhil Sharma, Sumit Malhotra, Vidya Dodwad, Shubhra Vaish, Deepak Kumar Singh
April-June 2017, 9(2):88-97
Background: The aim of the present study was to compare the root coverage of localized gingival recession (GR) using modified coronally advanced flap (CAF) (Sanctis and Zucchelli's technique) and root conditioning 24% ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) when done under magnification and without magnification. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 sites were taken with Miller's Class I GR (10 in test and 10 in control). All clinical parameters were recorded at baseline, 1 month, and 3 months. CAF and root conditioning were done with 24% EDTA. Surgical procedure at test site was carried under magnification ×3.5 and at control site was done without magnification. Results: Plaque index, gingival index, clinical attachment level, probing depth, width of keratinized tissue (WKT), recession depth (RD), and recession width (RW) at baseline and 3 months were compared using Student's t- test. Mean WKT at baseline in control and test group was 4.22 ± 2.05 and 3.22 ± 1.09 which increased to 4.56 ± 1.59 and 4.50 ± 0.94, respectively, at 3 months. RD at baseline in control and test groups was 2.56 ± 0.53 and 2.67 ± 0.87 which reduced to 1.83 ± 0.71 and 1.22 ± 1.20, respectively. RW at baseline in control and test group was 3.56 ± 1.13 and 3.67 ± 0.50 which decreased to 3.06 ± 1.01 and 1.72 ± 1.39, respectively. All the clinical parameters were statistically not significant between control and test groups. Mean visual analog scale (VAS) at 7 days postoperatively in control and test groups was 1.78 ± 0.97 and 0.22 ± 0.44, respectively. The VAS scores were found to be significantly lower in the test group at both 3rd and 7th day postoperatively showing less pain in test group. Conclusion: Microsurgery offers less pain and enhanced outcomes when compared to traditional macrosurgery.
  - 3,956 576
Antibacterial activity of four root canal sealers against Enterococcus Faecalis at 1st, 3rd, 5th, and 7th day duration: A In vitro study
Bhuvanesh Tandon, Veerendra M Uppin, Sumati A Hogade, Swantika Chaudhry, Sumit Bansal, Shokhi Bansal
April-June 2017, 9(2):98-104
Background: Root filling plays an important role in control of reinfection by entombing the residual organisms through antimicrobial activity of endodontic sealers. Several endodontic sealers have also been found to have antibacterial properties, depending on their chemical contents. Aim: Aim of the present study was to assess the antibacterial activity of 4 endodontic sealers i.e AH Plus (Group 1), Sealapex (Group 2), Roekoseal (Group 3) and ZOE (Group 4) against E. faecalis at 1hr, 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day duration. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activities of four root canal sealers were evaluated against E. faecalis at various time intervals by direct contact test. Freshly mixed sealers were placed in 96-well microtitre plates. Plates were placed for incubation at 37°C and thereafter placed in microplate reader wherein optical density in each well was measured at 630 nm. Readings were taken at regular intervals. i.e after 1 hr (fresh specimen), then on 1st, 3rd, 5th and 7th day. Statistical Analysis: Data was collected by recording optical density, considering the fact that as, bacterial population increases, absorbance reading, i.e. Optical Density (O.D.) given by spectrophotometer increases. Data were recorded, then plotted and statistically analyzed using 2 way -ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) and Newman-Keuls Post hoc procedure. Result: Intragroup comparison in various groups showed greatest antibacterial effect at 1 hr, followed by a decrease in the effectiveness at 1st day, 3rd day, 5thday, 7th day. In intergroup comparison, GROUP 2 (Sealapex) showed least inhibition of bacterial growth at 1 hr interval followed by further decrease at different studied intervals. Conclusion: It was concluded that Antibacterial activity of tested endodontic sealers on E. faecalis in an ascending order was as follows: Sealapex, Roekoseal, AH Plus and Zinc Oxide Eugenol sealer.
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Assessment of psychiatric morbidity among health-care students in a teaching hospital, Telangana state: A cross-sectional questionnaire-based study
Udai Kiran, Madhavi Padma, K. V. N. R. Pratap, Siva Kalyan, Parlapalli Vineela, Surya Chandra Varma
April-June 2017, 9(2):105-108
Introduction: Professional education can be a stressful experience for health-care students and may impact negatively on emotional well-being and academic performance which leads to psychiatric morbidity. The aim of this study is to assess the prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among the professional health-care students. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among professional health-care students in a tertiary care teaching hospital of Telangana state. The information regarding demographic data, academic achievements, and positive and negative events in the recent past was collected using semi-structured pro forma, and the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ)-28 is used to assess the psychiatric morbidity. Descriptive analysis and Pearson's correlation analysis were done to analyze the data. Results: A total of 836 students participated in the study, and the overall mean GHQ total score in the study population was 26.8, which is above the cutoff (24) score. The prevalence of psychiatric morbidity among study population is about 58.7%. Academic achievement and negative events in the recent past had effect on psychological morbidity and showed high GHQ scores among study population which was found to be statistically significant. Conclusion: The poor academic performance and negative events had a strong impact on psychological morbidity of students. The higher level of psychological morbidity warrants need for intervention such as social and psychological support to improve the quality of life for the health-care students. Further, a creation of positive academic environment as a teamwork of faculty, administration, educational experts, and students helps to develop psychological healthy dental and medical professionals who can perform better in a coming future.
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