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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-March 2021
Volume 13 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-59

Online since Thursday, December 31, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Knowledge, attitude, and practices of parents on the importance of their Children's oral health in Greater Noida, India Highly accessed article p. 1
Sukhdeep Singh, Neha Awasthi, Dhirja Goel, Deepak Khandelwal, Priyanka Sachdeva, Rakshana Bakhtawar
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_65_20  
Background: Parents and family members are considered the primary source for knowledge about child rearing and health habits for children. Young children's oral health maintenance and outcomes are influenced by their parent's knowledge and beliefs, which affect oral hygiene and healthy eating habits. Parental perception has a long-term influence in determining a child's oral health status. Aim: The aim of this study is to assess the oral health-related knowledge, attitude, and practices (KAP) of parents with children aged 3–5 years. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 parents of children aged 3 to 5 years were included in the study. A self-administered questionnaire, written both in English and local language (Hindi), validated through pre-tested survey, was given to the parents to assess the oral health related KAP. The results were calculated on the basis of frequency and percentages using the SPSS software. Results: Males comprised 49.8% and females comprised 50.2% of the respondents of questionnaire. Majority of fathers and mothers of the study population agreed for the importance of primary teeth. Almost all the participants in this study agreed that a child's teeth should be brushed/cleaned. A little less than half of study population considered 1 year as the suitable age for the child's first dental visit. A higher proportion of females as compared to males felt that night time bottle/breastfeeding leads to caries. Conclusion: Parental attitude, knowledge, and practices are responsible for their child's oral health. No statistical significance was seen between mothers and fathers on perception of their child's oral health care.
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The role of decalcified freeze-dried bone allografts in the healing of postoperative osseous defects resulting from cyst enucleation: A pilot study p. 6
Tejashvini Joshi, Neha Vyas, Nitu Shah, Saket Thaker, Nesha Sanghvi
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_73_20  
Background: We performed this pilot study to evaluate the osteoinductive potential of decalcified freeze-dried bone allografts (DFDBA) in the healing of postsurgical osseous defects after cyst enucleation through radiographic bone density monitoring over a 6-month period. Materials and Methods: Patients aged between 18 and 70 years of either gender with noninfected odontogenic or nonodontogenic cystic jaw lesions measuring 1–5 cm in size were enrolled and randomly assigned to study group or control group. The study group patients were filled with DFDBA graft in bony defects resulting from the enucleation of the cysts, whereas no filling material was used in the control group. Sutures were removed on the 7th postoperative day and healing was assessed. Further follow-up visits were done at 1, 3, and 6 months. Bone densities were recorded with grayscale histogram using Adobe Photoshop (version CS 5.1) and compared across all follow-ups. Results: A total of 20 patients were enrolled in the study. Both the groups were balanced in terms of the baseline (preoperative) characteristics. There was a significant increase in bone density in the study group as compared to the control group at months 1, 3, and 6 after the surgery. There was an overall percentage increase in bone density (postoperative density as reference) at months 1, 3, and 6 in the study and control groups. However, the increase was significantly greater in the study group as compared to the control group at month 3 and month 6, whereas there was no difference between both the groups at month 1. Conclusion: Our findings suggest the osteoinductive potential of DFDBA in the healing of osseous defects resulting from the enucleation of cysts.
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Epidemiological and clinicopathological analysis of oral leukoplakia in Patna p. 12
Madhuresh Kumar, Manisha Singh, S Suwasini
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_26_20  
Background: The early detection of oral potentially malignant disorder can reduce the transformation risk to oral squamous cell carcinoma, thereby reducing cancer morbidity and mortality. Aim: To obtain epidemiological information of oral leukoplakia (OL) and distribution of this disease in Patna. Subjects and Methods: Data were collected and analyzed for prevalence of OL among gender, age group, various oral sites, habits, and clinical and histopathological basis. Results: The overall prevalence shows high incidence of homogenous leukoplakia along with mild dysplasia in middle age male persons. Conclusion: Appropriate steps should be taken for early intervention, as it is the key to effective prevention.
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Evaluation and comparison of smear layer removal potency of three different irrigation regimes – A stereomicroscopic and scanning electron microscopic study p. 18
Megha C Patel, Roshni A Bhatt, Kaushal R Joshi, Lilavanti L Vaghela
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_128_20  
Background: Irrigation plays a pivotal role in pulp therapy owing to its flushing action and removal of the smear layer which if present prevents penetration of medicaments and sealers into the dentinal tubules. Aim: This study aims to evaluate and compare the smear layer removal potency of three commercial Irrigating agents. Materials and Methods: Single rooted 30 teeth were selected, decoronated, and randomly divided into three groups according to the irrigation regime to be used (Group I − 5% sodium hypochlorite [NaOCl] + ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid [EDTA], Group II – Chloraxid Gel + EDTA, Group III – Tween Kleen + 3% NaOCl). After recommended biomechanical preparation and irrigation, teeth were stained with 1% methylene blue dye for 24 h and sectioned in 2 halves. Stereomicroscopy was used to assess dye penetration and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis was done to detect dentinal surface changes. Data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA test and Tukey honestly significant difference test by statistical software SPSS version 20.0. Results: The highest dye penetration exhibiting smear layer removal for the apical third was seen in Group II (44.78) and for the middle third in Group I (64.73) which was statistically significant. SEM analysis showed maximum dentinal tubules visibility and patency in Group I and minimum in Group III. Conclusion: Newer irrigating materials (1-hydroxyethylidene-1, 1-bisphosphonate) exhibited weak potency for smear layer removal. The sequential use of gold standard NaOCl + EDTA gave satisfactory results, however, in apical third NaOCl Gel + EDTA was found to be more effective. Therefore, it can be prudent to use NaOCl Gels as a safer alternative to conventional means.
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Comparing original and universal screwdrivers in terms of torque loss in the abutment screw p. 24
Vasilios Alevizakos, Nadine Achilles, Björn Rahlf, Philipp Jehn, Marcus Schiller
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_86_20  
Objective: The aim of this study was to examine whether tightening or loosening the abutment screw results in torque loss and whether there is a difference in this respect between original screwdrivers and universal screwdrivers. Materials and Methods: For the purpose of the study, two groups were formed, with the original screwdriver used in group 1 and the universal screwdriver used in group 2. One Straumann implant and one BEGO implant were each inserted into a stationary torque transducer. The next step was to screw 13 abutments into each implant with 13 original abutment screws, using the screwdriver assigned to the group with the torque specified by the manufacturer. To establish whether the torque transmitted to the abutment screw via the screwdriver is also transmitted to the implant rather than causing deformation of the screw head or being transmitted to the surrounding area, the actual torque transmitted from the screw to the implant was measured and recorded electronically during the experiment. Results: There was no loss of torque in the transmission of the tightening torque to the Straumann implant with either screwdriver (P > 0.05). There was a loss of torque in the transmission of the tightening torque to the BEGO implant when using the universal screwdriver but not with the original screwdriver (P < 0.01). Relative to the previously applied tightening torque, a loss of torque when loosening the screw was found with both screwdrivers, both Straumann (P > 0.05) and BEGO (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Using universal screwdrivers can result in loss of torque. The loosening torque is thus decreased, which in turn increases the likelihood of complications such as screw loosening.
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Prevalence of oral submucous fibrosis among habitual gutkha and areca nut chewer in Bihar population: A community-based research p. 30
Rashi Chauhan, Amit Kumar Singh, Kriti Singh, Khushboo Rani, Kumar Anand, Aparajita Tiwari
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_39_20  
Background: The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence and severity of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) among habitual gutkha, areca nut, and pan chewers of Bihar population. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted of 3000 adult patients aged over 15 years who visited the Department of Oral Medicine and Radiology, Buddha Institute of Dental Sciences and Hospital. They were subjected to a thorough oral examination, and the bindings were recorded in the prescribed WHO Pro forma. Results: Our study revealed that the prevalence of OSMF was 1.6%. The prevalence among males was 2.60% and among females was 0.16%. All the 243 cases (100%) were associated with areca nut habits. Conclusion: Educating the population about the deleterious effects of the practice of tobacco and related habits on the body in general and the oral cavity. It is hoped that this study would serve as a reference for further epidemiological studies on the abovementioned lesion in this region.
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The bridge connecting sella turcica and palatally impacted canine p. 34
Isha Aggarwal, Ashwin Pradhan, Sanjay Mittal, Mandeep Kaur Bhullar, Aman Sachdeva, Merry Setia
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_30_20  
Introduction: The calcification of sella trucica bridge might be positively associated with canine impaction, the reason being that sella turcica, dental epithelial progenitor cells along with maxilla, palatal, and frontonasal development share a common embryological origin (neural crest cells). Therefore their assessment might provide useful clinical information in predicting palatal canine impaction. Aim: To evaluate the calcification of sella turcica bridging in patients with palatally impacted canine. Materials and method: A total of 21 pretreatment lateral cephalograms of patients with palatally impacted canine and 29 patients with normally erupted canine were selected for the study. Lateral cephalograms of the patients were acquired and landmark were identified and marked. Various Sella values (sella length/interclinoid distance, sella depth, sella diameter) were measured. The values obtained were then subjected to statistical analysis. Result: Suggested that patients with a palatally impacted canine showed smaller interclinoid distance. The frequency of sella bridging was significantly higher in subjects with canine impaction than in controls (P <0.001). Conclusion: Sella bridging is frequently found in palatally impacted canines. The smaller intercliniod distance could be an indicative factor for diagnosis of palatal canine impaction.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Accidental displacement of third molar root into the lingual pouch: A case report and review of treatment approaches p. 40
Mudit Agarwal, R Muthunagai, Amit Agarwal, Himanshu Aeran
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_121_20  
Third molar surgery is the most common procedure performed by oral and maxillofacial surgeons. A thorough understanding of the complications associated with this procedure will enable the practitioner to identify and counsel high-risk patients, appropriately manage more common complications, and be cognizant of less common sequelae and the most effective methods of management. We present a case of displaced third molar root into the lingual pouch (submandibular space) and ways to prevent and manage this rare complication. In this article, we have compared different surgical approaches for the removal of displaced root from the submandibular space.
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Ectopic nasal tooth associated with cleft lip and palate p. 43
Subhransu Basu, Sudipto Sahu, Abhinaba Bose, Sucharu Ghosh
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_120_19  
Ectopic nasal tooth is a rare phenomenon with only 0.1%–1% incidence rate. They are more frequently found coupled with cleft lip and palate. Here, we present a case of intranasal tooth in a 12-year-old male child with operated cleft lip and palate. The condition was diagnosed only on the basis of intraoral periapical radiograph and was extracted using gauge-holding forceps at a rural health-care center. We discuss the possible etiology, clinical findings, diagnosis, and treatment modalities of this condition. The purpose of this paper is to highlight that this rare condition can be managed with minimum available equipment in a rural setup.
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Misdiagnosis or missed diagnosis? Cone-beam computed tomography-aided multidisciplinary management of maxillary central incisor with palatogingival groove p. 46
R Kurinji Amalavathy, KM Vidya, Sonali Nabil Sarooshi, Hrudi Sundar Sahoo
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_95_20  
Palatogingival groove is a developmental anomaly that is most often seen on maxillary incisors, with a predilection for lateral incisors. It begins in the central groove and can extend to varying lengths and depths into the root. This groove can communicate with the pulp internally and periodontium externally, thereby establishing a milieu for the development of complex endodontic-periodontic lesion. In this article, we report multidisciplinary management of a maxillary central incisor, which was mistaken to be a vertical root fracture instead of a palatogingival groove. We also discuss the significance of early recognition of this lesion, differential diagnosis, and it's interdisciplinary management with the aid of cone-beam computed tomography.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Coronavirus (COVID-19): A dental surgeon's approach p. 50
Rajneesh Parimoo, Baljeet Singh, Divya Sharma, Vanshika Sharma
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_67_20  
In the past many years, different viruses have created an atmosphere of menace, all over the world. In 2003, severe acute respiratory syndrome epidemic, 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic, 2014 Middle East respiratory syndrome epidemic, and recently to join the list is the deadly novel coronavirus, COVID-19. It is a global health emergency with implications for all the sections of the society, including health-care professionals. In the current scenario of panic, the health-care professionals, including dental surgeons have to play a pivotal role in the prevention of the future spread of COVID-19. Dental practice being a major route of aerosols, dentists definitely will have to contribute handsomely toward this end. This article attempts to draw the attention of dental surgeons toward the etiology, transmission, and prevention of COVID-19 infection, with special emphasis on infection control measures as they relate to COVID-19 infection.
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Containing the contagion-dental practice management post-COVID-19 p. 54
Padma K Bhat, MM Nayana, MY Jayachandra
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_63_20  
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, which originated in Wuhan, China, has now affected more than 100 countries around the world. In the light of the WHO declaring COVID-19 as a public health emergency of international concern, despite global efforts to contain the killer disease, the cases are still increasing due to community spread. Coronavirus or the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is present abundantly in the infected person's salivary and nasopharyngeal secretions. The contagion occurs very easily through these droplets, which are very evident in any dental clinic. However, the dental clinics are open for emergency treatments. The aim of this article is to give a glance into the impact of COVID-19 on dentistry in India.
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