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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2022
Volume 14 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 53-108

Online since Tuesday, April 26, 2022

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Antifungal efficacy of different extracts of neem and turmeric on candida species – An in vitro analysis Highly accessed article p. 53
Nallan C. S K. Chaitanya, Diksha Chikte, Kandari Ramya, Sushmitha Yadav, C Pravallika, Sasi Vardhini, Bhargavi Priya, Baradi Keerthana, Amal Fathima
DOI:10.4103/ijds.ijds_52_21  
Background: Curcumin is an age-old spice, which is known for its anti-inflammatory activity and antibacterial property, and neem is proven to have many medicinal properties, especially known for its antimicrobial properties. Aim: The study aimed at assessing the antifungal activity of different preparations of turmeric and neem over Candida species. Materials and Methods: Using Sabouraud's agar as the medium, Candida species colonies were transferred to the agar plates after preparation of five wells. 75 μl, 50 μl, 25 μl, 10 μl, and 5 μl of neem leaf oil, neem oil, turmeric oil, turmeric extract, and neem seed oil were added and incubated at 37°C for 18–24 h. The diameter of inhibition zone around the wells where the growth was inhibited corresponded to the antifungal activity. Results: Neem bark extract and turmeric extract showed the highest inhibitory range against Candida albicans. Neem leaf extract showed the highest range of inhibition at 75% against Candida krusei and Candida tropicalis. Conclusion: Extracts of turmeric and neem have shown definitive inhibition against different strains of candida in vitro, and hence, these can be used for treating candidiasis as an alternative to regular triazoles.
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X-ray micro-computed tomography characterization of autologous teeth particle used in postextraction sites for bone regeneration. An experimental study in dogs p. 58
José Luis Calvo-Guirado, Felix de Carlos-Villafranca, Miguel Garcés-Villalá, Nuria García-Carrillo, Vidushi Jindal, Francisco Martínez-Martinez
DOI:10.4103/ijds.ijds_138_21  
Objectives: The objective of this study was to develop a new computed method to characterize and measure the bone density measured in Hounsfield units (HU) of particulate tooth grafts, evaluated by micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) at 2 months of healing. Materials and Methods: Thirty-two dog teeth were crushed with a smart dentin grinder, later implanted in postextraction sites of 4 beagle dogs. Twenty-four cores were taken after 2 months and analyzed by micro-CT (Albira). The methodology used was based on a descriptive statistic of the bone density values measured in HU obtained from the creation of volumes of interest (VOIs) and predefined three-dimensional iso-contours from the images obtained after performing micro-CT of the biopsies of the crushing tooth. Results: The micro-CT allows established the characteristics of the biomaterials by studying the HU. The most predominant type of bone was type D3 density (400–800 HU). There was a light presence of bone-type density D2 and D1 in 2 of the regions studied. Conclusions: Micro-CT could be considered a technique of great value in the characterization of biomaterials based on the HU, after implantation in an in vivo model. The distribution of D1 and D2 particles were located around the bottom and middle part of the alveoli and the D3 and D4 bone particles were in the hole core. Therefore, the method proposed in this study is useful to determine the density of the tooth granulate (dentin grinder) and any other biomaterial.
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A study to evaluate cephalometric hard tissue profile of maharashtrian population for orthognathic surgery p. 68
Sanjay Joshi, Sneha Punamiya, Charudatta Naik, Bhupendra Mhatre, Aarti Garad, Deepti Chabalani
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_60_21  
Aim: Variability exists in the ethnic groups that are separated by culture and geographic boundaries. The aim of this study was to evaluate hard tissue profile of well-balanced and clinically acceptable Maharashtrian population. Furthermore, compare the cephalometric values of Maharashtrian population with the established norms of Caucasians. Materials and Methods: Lateral cephalogram of 100 patients (50 males and 50 females) in the age group of 20–30 years, were taken in the natural head position. Cephalometric analysis was performed on them and compared to the values of the Caucasians. Results: Statically significant differences were obtained in the between the Maharashtrian population and the Caucasians. Maharashtrian males have a straighter profile, reduced vertical height, and reduced mandibular divergence compared to Caucasian males. Maharashtrian females have a convex profile, reduced vertical height and reduced mandibular divergence. Conclusion: Since significant differences were found in the Maharashtrian population compared to the Caucasians. These values should be taken into consideration when assessing the Maharashtrian patient with facial deformity to obtain optimal results.
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Scanning electron microscopic comparative analysis of smear layer removal using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid and chitosan activated by ultrasonics and diode laser: An In vitro study p. 74
Chakravarthy S Vineetha, Vaiyapuri Ravi, Sivakumar Jambai Sampathkumar, Shiva Anjaneya Prasad, Saravana Priyan Soundappan, M Chittrarasu
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_56_21  
Context: The inorganic component of the smear layer is traditionally removed using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). Aims: This study was done to compare the ability of smear layer removal by ultrasonic activation and diode laser activation of EDTA with Chitosan – which is a novel nanoparticle-based chelating agent. Settings and Design: Prospective in vitro experimental study conducted in a tertiary care Dental college and hospital for 6 months. Subjects and Methods: Seventy-five mandibular premolars with single canal were decoronated to standardize the root length to 14 mm. Canals were prepared up to Protaper F3 and the specimens were randomly divided into three groups and two subgroups based on the irrigation protocol. Group A (Normal saline), Group B1 and B2 (ultrasonically activated–EDTA and Chitosan, respectively), Group C1 and C2 (Diode laser-activated– EDTA and Chitosan, respectively). Samples were processed for scanning electron microscopic (SEM) analysis. Photographs were taken in the apical, middle, and coronal thirds. Data were collected using Gutmann's scoring criteria. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was performed using one-way analysis of variance and Tukey's post hoc test (P < 0.05). Results: Diode laser-activated EDTA had the highest efficacy of smear layer removal at the coronal third. In the middle and apical third, ultrasonically activated EDTA had the highest efficacy. Conclusions: Chitosan may be considered as an alternative to EDTA, in the removal of smear layer considering the drawbacks of EDTA.
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Knowledge regarding orthodontic iatrogenics, challenges, and management strategies among orthodontists and orthodontic postgraduate students: A questionnaire survey p. 79
Amit B Nilgar, Tanvi Shukla, Pooja S Dhagavkar, Devyani V Desai
DOI:10.4103/ijds.ijds_45_21  
Context: Negligence or improper care during orthodontic treatment results in various unwanted complications due to the orthodontic appliances. Iatrogenics is a situation that leads to reversible or irreversible damage to patients' health which is unintentionally induced by treatment. The knowledge and foresight to predict any iatrogenic incident will help an orthodontist to avoid any greater complications in the predicted outcome of orthodontic treatment. Aim: The aim of the study was to assess the knowledge of orthodontists and orthodontic postgraduate students regarding iatrogenics, its challenges, and management strategies. Settings and Design: An online questionnaire survey. Subjects and Methods: A predesigned pretested questionnaire on awareness, challenges, and management domains regarding iatrogenics, involved during orthodontic treatment, was circulated using Google Forms among orthodontists and orthodontic postgraduate students. Statistical Analysis Used: Responses of the participants were entered in excel and were assessed using descriptive and frequency statistics in SPSS (version 20). Results: It was observed that only 10% of participants had sufficient knowledge regarding iatrogenics which can possibly occur during any orthodontic treatment, its challenges as well as the management. Only half of the participants were trained to handle these kinds of situations. Conclusions: Orthodontists and orthodontic postgraduate students had an average to poor knowledge regarding iatrogenics involved in orthodontic treatment, its challenges, and management strategies.
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Estimation and efficient management of endodontic emergencies at a tertiary care hospital during the COVID-19 pandemic p. 85
Shivani Khanna, Kapil Krishan Dua, Dinkar Parveen Khanna, Preet Kanwal Kaur Atwal, Ritika Prakash
DOI:10.4103/ijds.ijds_65_21  
Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak was declared as a global pandemic by WHO. Among health workers, dentists including endodontist are particularly at risk of becoming infected as virus is abundantly present in nasopharyngeal and salivary secretions. As the pandemic continues, treatment of the patients will need to change from a palliative to a more permanent treatment approach. Aims and Objectives: The aim of this article was to assess the number of patients who visited dental care facility for emergency treatment and to highlight the management of endodontic emergencies using aerosol or non-aerosol generating procedures to prevent nosocomial spread of infection. Materials and Methods: Total of 595 patients were analyzed for demographic details, preoperative diagnosis was made and patients were categorized according to treatment needs (emergency/urgent/non-emergency) followed by management of patients under complete infection control. Results: 367 cases were diagnosed and considered for endodontic emergency treatment. 144 cases were classified as urgent cases, which includes mainly restorations (24.3%). Few cases also came for routine dental check-up (5.7%) and other minor procedures. Most of the procedures (68%) were aerosol generating, 27% with non-aerosol generating procedures and 5% were given only pharmacotherapy. Conclusion: During COVID-19 pandemic dentist, play an important role in patient awareness and management of patients.All the aerosol generating procedures should be done with the utmost care to control the spread of infection.
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Parental knowledge, attitude, and practices regarding oral health of their children in nuh district of Haryana, India p. 89
Amita Sharma, Megha Jain, Monika Vigarniya
DOI:10.4103/ijds.ijds_70_21  
Background: During the early days a child's development and oral health habits are predisposed and shaped by parents. For the betterment of the oral health of their children, parents should have a positive attitude toward oral health. To evaluate parent's knowledge, attitudes, and practices toward oral health of their children a study was conducted. Materials and Methods: Parents of 340 children who visited the Department of Dentistry, Shaheed Hasan Khan Mewati Government Medical College Nuh, Haryana, were included in this cross-sectional study. A self-validated questionnaire containing two parts was delivered on a face-to-face interview basis. The first part involved demographic data of parents and the second part had 15 multiple-choice questions related to knowledge, attitude, and practices toward dental health of their children. Results: The results revealed the majority of the parents (50%) were not aware of the importance of primary dentition. The first dental visit was planned after the history of pain or swelling in the child's mouth by most of the respondents. Regular and supervised brushing was ignored by 79.9% of the caretakers. Conclusion: In the present study, it was concluded that there is a little level of awareness regarding knowledge, attitude, and practices among parents toward the oral health of children. It is thus suggested to educate the parents on the significance of oral health and periodic dental check-ups.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Radicular dens invaginatus: Rare variant of a common anomaly p. 94
Sanpreet Singh Sachdev, Tabita Joy Chettiankandy, Manisha Ahire Sardar, Pranoti Prashant Kausadikar, Ashish Sunilkumar Sarda
DOI:10.4103/ijds.ijds_122_21  
Dens invaginatus is an anomaly of the shape of teeth resulting from invagination of the developing tooth germ. Although the coronal variant is frequently observed in the clinical setting, the true “radicular” variant of Dens invaginatus resulting from invagination of the Hertwig's epithelial root sheath at the root level is extremely rare. The anomaly can present in itself with multiple sequelae owing to the peculiar structure of the tooth which makes it vulnerable for entry and lodging of bacteria even in a tooth with an apparently normal crown devoid of any carious process. It also complicates the treatment plan whereby it renders root canal treatment impracticable and makes it difficult to extract the tooth atraumatically. The present report consists of one such case of radicular dens invaginatus that was diagnosed by correlating clinical, radiographic, and histopathological findings. Management of the case was done by extracting the tooth in multiple sections without any posttreatment complications.
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Surgical lip repositioning as an esthetic treatment to improve gummy smile p. 98
Shweta Chaudhri, Amitabh Srivastava
DOI:10.4103/ijds.ijds_6_21  
There can be multiple etiologies of “gummy smile.” It might be caused by skeletal reasons like vertical maxillary excess or rotation of the maxilla, or dental reasons such as altered or delayed passive eruption, short clinical crown, dentoalveolar extrusion of maxillary anterior teeth, and extruded incisors or due to soft-tissue reasons like upper lip which is short or hyperactive, periodontal reasons like plaque or drug induced gingival enlargement or due to a combination of these etiologies. Treatment plan of gummy smile is made according to the etiology. In the case reported here, gummy smile was due to a combination of an upper lip hyperactivity and vertical maxillary excess. Hence, surgical lip repositioning was performed successfully. There was no surgical complication with minimal postoperative discomfort and the patient was satisfied with the outcome of the treatment.
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REVIEW ARTICLE Top

Periodontal health: The nexus between oral and systemic health p. 102
Krishnendu Debnath, Swet Nisha, Debanjan Das, Sudipta Sahu, Savan Sunari Rajaram
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_92_21  
Periodontal disease has interconnections with oral and systemic health. The maintenance of good periodontal health is important as it reflects sound overall health. The bacterial challenge and host immune response create dysbiosis and can set inflammation. Modifying the immune response, reducing biofilm formation, and proper referral between dental and medical practitioners can help in bridging the gap of interdependency and this will eventually be beneficial to the patient's overall health.
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