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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
October-December 2019
Volume 11 | Issue 4
Page Nos. 175-232

Online since Tuesday, October 1, 2019

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REVIEW ARTICLES  

Role of microRNA profiling in oral submucous fibrosis pathogenesis and anticarcinogenic action of curcumin in microRNA dysregulation in oral carcinogenesis: A literature update Highly accessed article p. 175
Shivesh Acharya, Shruti Singh, Sarabjot Kaur Bhatia
DOI:0.4103/IJDS.IJDS_68_19  
Oral submucous fibrosis (OSF) is a potentially malignant disorder carrying the highest risk of malignant transformation among the oral premalignant lesions. A wide range of treatment modalities have been proposed for OSF, but none have proved curative or reduced the morbidity significantly. Curcumin, a hydrophobic polyphenol, derived from turmeric with its wide spectrum of biological functions has been widely accepted as a therapeutic drug in OSF. Recent studies have focused on the regulation of anticancer effect of curcumin through the regulation of microRNA (miRNA). miRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that play an important role in cellular growth, differentiation, apoptosis, and immune response, functioning either as tumor suppressors or as tumor promoter. The review attempts to summarize the present understanding of molecular dysregulation of miRNA in OSF pathogenesis and lay new insight on the molecular mechanism of anticarcinogenic effect of curcumin on miRNA involved in oral cancer.
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Evidence-based dentistry: Effectual tool in decision-making p. 180
Charu Tandon, Pranav Kumar Singh, Indu Singh, Sunil Chandra Verma
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_59_19  
The goal of evidence-based dentistry (EBD) is to help practitioners provide their patients with optimal care. The practice-related element in EBD is the clinician's integration of the resulting knowledge with clinical expertise, and patient preferences to determine the treatment to be recommended to individual patients. Periodontology has a rich history and a strong passion for science. Evidence-based periodontology is the application of evidence-based health care to periodontology. The substantial and extensive periodontal information base, developed over the years, has provided a rational basis for choosing the best treatment for patients. Various components of evidence-based periodontology include the production of the best available evidence, the critical appraisal and interpretation of the evidence, the communication and discussion of the evidence to individuals seeking care, and the integration of the evidence with clinical skills and patient values. Evidenced-based approach offers a bridge from science to clinical practice.
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Recent advances on gingival tissue management in restorative dentistry Highly accessed article p. 185
Pavitra Sampath, Lavanya Varma, Manoj Varma, Aneesh Shabu
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_56_19  
An increased emphasis on the perio–restorative interface in restorative dentistry is important to enable the utilization of the concept of biologic width in a practical manner. Regarding management of gingival tissues, the goal is to ensure that the peridontium is in a healthy state. As the oral cavity is a difficult-to-treat area because of the hindrance of lips, cheeks, and tongue, it becomes difficult to visualize and manipulate instruments in the area to be treated related to the gingival tissue which bleeds if improperly managed.The aim of this review is to describe the four categories of biological width and provide the clinician with an overview of gingival retraction techniques available for clinical situations that are frequently encountered.
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ORIGINAL ARTICLES Top

Efficacy of 4% Articaine with 1:100,000 Adrenaline as an Effective Alternative for Achieving Anesthesia during Dental Extraction p. 189
Asmita Ghosh, Subhransu Basu, Chirantan Maity, Sandeep Pachisia, Sudipto Sahu, Sucharu Ghosh
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_54_19  
Purpose: The purpose of the study is to ascertain the efficacy of 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline, its duration of action, onset, the field of anesthesia, check patient compliance and complications (if any) during and postsurgery, and assess the degree of pain. Materials and Methods: Ninety-five patients requiring intra-alveolar tooth extraction in mandibular and maxillary arches. Results: Subjective onset of action for inferior alveolar nerve block was from 59 to 90 s and the objective onset of action was from 68 to 90 s. For posterior superior alveolar nerve blocks, the onset of action was from 42 to 68 s, and for infraorbital nerve blocks, it was from 40 to 52 s. The mean duration of anesthesia was 183.6 ± 6.912 min in case of inferior alveolar nerve blocks, 60.735 ± 3.212 min in posterior superior alveolar nerve blocks, and 43.33 ± 3.497 min in infraorbital nerve blocks. Pain scoring by the patients showed a visual analog scale score of 2 ± in inferior alveolar nerve blocks, 3 ± in posterior superior nerve blocks, and 1 ± in infraorbital nerve block. Conclusion: We recommend 4% articaine with 1:100,000 adrenaline as a better anesthetic, as it was more comfortable the patient with less bleeding, more profound, less time of onset, slightly longer duration of action, and comfortable to the surgeon.
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Evaluation of the incisive papilla as a guide to maxillary canine position in the moradabad population: An anthropometric analysis p. 196
Siddhi Tripathi, Sujata Pandey, Swatantra Agarwal, Pratyushman Hazarika
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_46_19  
Introduction: Incisive papilla has been used as a fixed anatomical landmark to guide teeth arrangement. However, controversy exists in literature whether to use anterior, middle, or posterior border of the incisive papilla for the determination of position of maxillary canines. Hence, a study was planned to ascertain the location of the incisive papilla to the intercanine line in a sample of population reporting to a teaching institute in Moradabad. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 participants aged 20–40 years were selected for the study. Impressions of the maxillary arches were made, and the casts were poured. The anterior point, midpoint, and posterior point of the incisive papilla and the tips of canines were marked on the cast. Photographs were taken and analyzed using Adobe Photoshop 7.0. The intercanine line was analyzed to assess whether it passed through the anterior, middle, or posterior border of the incisive papilla. Results: The Chi-square test revealed that there was a statistically significant difference (P < 0.05) of intercanine line in relation to different borders of the incisive papilla. The intercanine line passed through the anterior border of the incisive papilla in 8% of the participants, the middle border in 33.5% of the participants, between the middle and posterior border in 17.5% of the participants, and the posterior border in 41% of the participants. Conclusions: It was concluded that the intercanine line passed through the posterior border of the incisive papilla in maximum cases followed by the middle third, middle-posterior, and least through the anterior border of the incisive papilla. Hence, the posterior border of the incisive papilla is a reliable indicator for the placement of maxillary canines.
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Patient-reported oral health status and perceptions on oral hygiene before and after oral prophylaxis: A pre-experimental clinical study in Lagos, Nigeria p. 200
Afolabi Oyapero, Abiola Adetokunbo Adeniyi, Oluwaseun Fasoyiro, Aliru Idowu Akinleye
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_52_19  
Background: Constant elimination of bacterial plaque from all nonshedding oral surfaces prevents the progression of periodontal diseases while oral prophylaxis supplements the patient's homecare plaque control. This study compared patient-reported outcomes of oral prophylaxis before and after the procedure and examined the relationship between self-rated and normatively assessed oral health at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital. Methodology: A pre-experimental design was employed while data were obtained using an interviewer-administered questionnaire. Oral cleanliness was documented using a five-point scale while participants' subjective assessment of their oral health status was done on Likert scale. The normative assessment was made with the oral hygiene index-simplified (OHI-S) and the gingival index (GI). Data entry and analysis were performed using the SPSS software version 20, whereas bivariate comparisons were made using the Chi-square and ANOVA tests. A 5% level of statistical significance was adopted. Results: Ninety-two respondents were enlisted. Sixty-seven (72.8%) respondents who rated their oral health as good had better oral hygiene with mean GI of 0.87 and OHI-S of 1.76 compared to the respondents with a poor self-rated oral health who had mean scores of 0.90 and 2.01, respectively. Females 39 (81.2%) had significantly better self-rated oral health (P = 0.048). Poor self-rated oral health was higher among participants with xerostomia and those that infrequently visited the dental clinic; and significantly higher among respondents with difficulty in mastication due to toothache within the past 6 months (6 [75.0%];P= 0.026). Conclusion: There was a positive association between self-rated oral health and normatively assessed oral health status. There was also a significant improvement in the subjects' perception on the benefit of scaling and polishing. The findings highlight the potential role of patients' beliefs and perceptions as potential impetus for treatment provision.
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Comparison of modified lingual split technique and conventional buccal bone cutting technique for the surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar p. 207
Kanwar Inderjot Singh, Atul Sharma, Amit Bali, Aayush Malhotra, Dinesh Chand Patidar, Kavita Tanwar
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_93_19  
Objectives: The main objective of the study is to compare the modified lingual split technique and conventional buccal bone cutting technique for the surgical extraction of impacted mandibular third molar. Materials and Methods: Ten patients with bilaterally impacted third molars were randomly selected for the study. Technique selection for side will be done by coin tossing method for randomization. One side of each patient will be operated by conventional buccal bone cutting technique and other side will be operated by modified lingual split technique by Davis modification. Washout period will be of 2 weeks between the two surgical extractions. Various parameters were recorded intraoperatively and postoperatively. Results: Conventional buccal bone cutting technique took more time than modified lingual split technique, whereas no significant difference was found between the two techniques on comparing postoperative parameters such as trismus, dry socket, inflammation, and nerve paresthesia. Clinically, pain felt and swelling observed were less in modified lingual split technique as compared to conventional buccal bone cutting technique. Conclusion: It is been conclude that modified lingual split technique was less time-consuming, less painful, and less swelling was observed in comparison with conventional buccal bone cutting technique.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Masking of midline diastema-a smokescreen approach p. 214
Yamini Rajachandrasekaran, Geeth Deepika Kottai Gandhi
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_64_19  
Midline diastema is a common esthetic problem in both mixed and permanent dentition. Many innovative therapies vary from restorative procedures such as composite build-up to surgery (frenectomy), and orthodontic corrections are also available. A high frenum attachment is often the cause of persistent diastemas. Presented herewith is a case report of a 43-year-old female with a high frenal attachment that had caused spacing of the maxillary central incisors. The need for treatment in this case is mainly attributed to esthetic and psychological reasons, rather than functional ones. This case report demonstrates the removal of the abnormal labial frenum attachment through surgery and subsequent closure of maxillary diastema following prosthetic as well as restorative approach.
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Rehabilitation with immediate implants in periapical-infected sites: A case series p. 218
Alok Ranjan Sasmal, Loknath Garhnayak, Anisha Avijeeta, Jhuna Sahu
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_76_19  
Conventionally, before placing dental implants, the compromised teeth are removed, and the extraction sockets are left to heal for several months. However, in the recent past, to preserve the alveolar bone level from collapsing and to reduce treatment time and procedures, tooth extraction is followed by implant placement immediately without waiting for the site to heal. The situation becomes critical with the presence of periapical pathology as it may cause failure of implant due to the presence of remnants of infection. This case series shows the survival of immediate implants placed in postextraction-infected sites and restored with cemented crowns.
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Surgical correction of bilateral fusion of oral commissure in a patient with stevens–Johnson syndrome p. 222
Mahender Singh, Shweta Verma, Munish Goel, Vijay Kumar
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_86_19  
The present case report highlights the surgical correction of bilateral fusion of oral commissure in a 10-year-old male patient suffering from Stevens–Johnson syndrome associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. It was treated using a modified commissuroplasty technique and was quite successful.
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A conservative approach to treat large periapical lesions: A report of two cases p. 225
Saroj Kumar Thakur, Rambhika Thakur, Atul Sankhyan, Arun Patyal
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_82_19  
Pulpal tissue necrosis transforms the pulpal chamber into an unprotected environment. This environment becomes susceptible to colonization by numerous microorganisms that inhabit the oral cavity. Periapical lesions are formed as a result of the immunologic host response to bacteria or its products. These periapical lesions cannot be differentially diagnosed as either radicular cysts or apical granulomas based on radiographic evidence alone. The exact mechanism by which periapical cysts heal is also not clearly understood. In these case reports, root canal treatment proved successful in promoting the healing of large periapical lesions. This confirms that periapical lesions can respond favorably to nonsurgical treatment.
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Esthetic treatment option for rehabilitation of anterior defect using andrew's bridge system p. 229
Joel Koshy Joseph, Smitha Sharan, Sanjana J Rao, Priyanka Bhat
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_84_19  
With high incidence of ridge deformity following extraction, the choice of treatment or the treatment option chosen plays a vital role in the longevity and success of the treatment. This study describes a particular case where the patient losses her lower anterior teeth because of periodontal reasons and has other confounding factors which made the obvious choice of treatment of fixed partial denture, implant-retained prosthesis, and conventional removable partial denture unsuitable.
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ERRATUM Top

Erratum: Effect of different force magnitudes on the photoelastic stress in overdenture retained by two implants p. 232

DOI:10.4103/0976-4003.268445  
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