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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2019
Volume 11 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 121-173

Online since Wednesday, July 3, 2019

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Evaluation of different desensitizing agents on dentinal tubule occlusion: A scanning electron microscope study Highly accessed article p. 121
Saleeta Mushtaq, Rajan Gupta, Parveen Dahiya, Mukesh Kumar, Vrishti Bansal, Sunita R Melwani
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_36_19  
Background: Dentinal hypersensitivity occurs on exposed dentin and depends on the patency of dentinal tubules. The purpose of this study was to evaluate different desensitizing agents on dentinal tubule occlusion by scanning electron microscopy. Materials and Methods: Thirty teeth were collected from extracted sound maxillary premolars. Samples were sectioned mesiodistally to obtain 30 buccal and 30 lingual surfaces, and enamel was removed in order to simulate hypersensitive dentin. Specimens were randomly divided into four groups. Group 1: 10 samples were coated with Gluma desensitizer, Group 2: 10 samples were coated with VivaSens, Group 3: 10 samples were coated with MS Coat, Group 4: 10 samples each of the contralateral parts of samples were coated with Gluma desensitizer, VivaSens, and MS Coat on which no desensitizing agent was applied, which acted as the controls. All the specimens were examined under SEM, and photomicrographs were evaluated to assess the opening of dentinal tubules in the controls and occlusion of dentinal tubules in their contralateral parts coated with the desensitizing agents. Results: Statistically significant amount of tubules got occluded after the application of MS Coat desensitizer as compared to tubules that got occluded after the application of VivaSens desensitizer and Gluma desensitizer. Conclusion: MS Coat showed better results in the closure of the dentinal tubules, followed by VivaSens and then Gluma desensitizer.
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Orthodontic perspective in causing the severity of malocclusion in hypodontia patients: A clinical study p. 125
Deepankar Bhatnagar, Tahira Bawa, Rupinder Matharoo, Dipti Bhatnagar, Deepika Jhangu
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_34_19  
Aim: This study was aimed to compare Bolton's ratio and the arch width of patients with hypodontia with that of the control group. Materials and Methods: Ten cases with congenitally missing teeth and 10 cases of the control group were grouped in this study. It was guided by Bolton's ratio and Ashley Howe's analysis considering the tooth material and comparing tooth material to jaw size in the latter. Tooth width measurements were compared using a t-test, statistically significant at P < 0.05. Results: Patients with hypodontia shows significantly lower Bolton's ratio as compared to the control group. However, the values when compared statistically were not significant (P > 0.05). Arch width analysis showed significantly reduced basal arch width dimensions in hypodontia patients (P < 0.05) with preponderance toward nonextraction. Conclusion: These findings suggest that the hypodontia patients have comparatively narrower mesiodistal tooth measurements (prominently in posterior segments), lower Bolton's ratio, and reduced basal arch width as compared to control population. The treatment of patients showed preponderance toward nonextraction methodology.
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Evaluation of different polishing agents on root surface topography of human extracted teeth p. 130
Priya Kaushal, Mukesh Kumar, Rajan Gupta, Parveen Dahiya, Vrishti Bansal, Sunita R Melwani
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_29_19  
Context: Polishing is an important step in oral prophylaxis procedure, which retards further accumulation of plaque on the root surface. Aim: The present in vitro study was to evaluate the efficacy of Sodium Bicarbonate Prophy Powder and Glycine Prophy Powder to produce minimum roughness on the root surface of cementum and dentin. Methods: Forty-five samples were collected and stored in saline. Scaling and root planing of each sample were done. Each sample was mounted on acrylic block so as to leave one surface of the root exposed. A tentative area on the proximal side of root 4 mm apically from cementoenamel junction was demarcated. Forty-five specimens were randomly divided into three groups – Group 1: Control group, Group 2: Polished with Sodium Bicarbonate Prophy Powder, and Group 3: Polished with Glycine Prophy Powder. All the samples were analyzed under surface roughness tester, and average roughness values were calculated. Statistical Analysis Used: The values obtained were statistically analyzed using the NPAR test. Results: The study revealed that average roughness is significantly less after using Glycine Prophy Powder than Sodium Bicarbonate Prophy Powder. Conclusion: Glycine Prophy Powder is a more efficient polishing powder in producing less roughness on the root surface as compared to Sodium Bicarbonate Prophy Powder.
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Comparative evaluation of clinical and radiographical outcomes of immediate versus delayed dental implant placement: A prospective study p. 133
Ashish Bali, Mrinal Jindal, Amit Goel, Virshali Gupta, Ankita Dadwal, Shiva Chauhan
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_18_18  
Background: To investigate the crestal bone changes following immediate versus delayed dental implant placement. Aims and Objective: Comparative evaluation of clinical and radiographical outcomes of immediate versus delayed dental implant placement: A prospective study. Methods: A prospective randomized comparative study was conducted in total of ten implant sites in patients within the age group of 20 to 60 years comprising both male and female visiting the Out-Patient Department of Periodontics, Himachal Dental College, Sunder Nagar (H.P.). Clinical parameters were recorded at baseline (1 month), 3 months and 6 months; they included Probing depth (PD), Radiographic Assessment (RA) for crestal bone changes. Results: On intergroup comparison, the mean difference of the probing between Group I and Group II showed that Group I had slightly higher probing depth [Table 1] than Group II during 1st to 3rd month and 3rd to 6th month period and On intergroup comparison, the mean difference of the crestal bone changes [Table 2] between Group I and Group II showed that Group II had slightly higher bone loss than Group I during 1st to 3rd month and 3rd to 6th month period. Conclusion: Within limitations of this study, it can be concluded that there was significant crestal bone loss in Group II (delayed implantation) at both mesial and distal surface during 3rd to 6th month's observation period. Furthermore, a continuous bone resorption was observed over the time in both the groups. Due to small sample size, short duration, and two-dimensional radiographical assessment of crestal bone loss during follow-up in the study, long-term survival of two-piece implants in both the groups cannot be determined; so, further studies are required to be done.
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Comparison of conventional and digital radiographic techniques for the assessment of alveolar bone in periodontal disease p. 138
Heena Sharma, Parveen Dahiya, Rajan Gupta, Mukesh Kumar, Sunita R Melwani, Lolakshi Kachroo
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_28_19  
Background: Alveolar bone loss at the crest and interdental osseous defects are the frequent outcomes of periodontal disease. Radiographs act as valuable adjunct as they provide essential information regarding the morphology of residual bone and help in determining the prognosis, formulating treatment plan, and establishing the outcome of various therapies. Aims: The aim of the study was to compare the measurements obtained by conventional (intraoral periapical [IOPA] radiographs) and digital radiographs (radiovisiography [RVG]) for the assessment of alveolar bone by utilizing intrasurgical (IS) measurements as the gold standard. Methods: Thirty systemically healthy periodontitis patients with 100 interproximal sites were selected to undergo periodontal flap surgery. IOPA radiographs and RVG were taken before surgery using paralleling cone technique with the help of extension cone paralleling technique (XCP)®. Measurements in case of horizontal and vertical bone loss were taken and compared to IS measurements. Statistical Analysis Used: Analysis of variance and post hoc test were used. Results: No statistically significant difference was found between conventional and digital radiographic method in comparison to IS (IS) method for the assessment of alveolar bone level. Conclusion: Both radiographic methods (conventional and digital) showed statistically nonsignificant results in comparison to IS measurements. Hence, either IOPA radiograph or RVG can be used to visualize the alveolar bone level in periodontal disease.
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Effect of different force magnitudes on the photoelastic stress in overdenture retained by two implants p. 143
Júlia Trevizam Campana, Marcelo Ferraz Mesquista, Valentim Adelino Ricardo Barão, Mauro Antonio De Arruda Nóbilo, Carmem Silvia Pfeifer, Rafael Leonardo Xediek Consani
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_25_19  
Aim: The aim of this study was to evaluate the photoelastic stress on mandibular overdenture retained by single implant when submitted to occlusal forces exerted by maxillary conventional denture in occlusion, or single axial force on first molars. Materials and Methods: Occlusal forces of 10, 20 and 30 kgf were exerted on the maxillary denture in occlusion with the mandibular overdenture adapted in the photoelastic model. Axial forces with same magnitudes were also individually exerted on the right and left first molars of the overdenture. Qualitative analysis were made in images obtained with polariscope, and quantitative analysis with the FRINGES program. Results: Qualitative analysis showed that the stress was located predominantly around the implant in all force magnitudes. Increase of occlusal force promoted higher stress on the implant. Increased axial single force on the left and right first molars caused higher stress on the medial region of the mandible body, and higher stress was induced in the side of loading. Quantitative analysis showed that the occlusal force promoted the following values: 10 kgf (T = 252.58; N = 0.54); 20 kgf (T = 1033.87; N = 2.21) and 30 kgf (T = 1009.99; N = 2.16); axial force on left molar promoted the following values: 10 kgf (T = 256.95; N = 0.55); 20 kgf (T = 265.07; N = 0.72) and 30 kgf (T = 266.38; N = 0.70); and axial force on right molar promoted the following values: 10 kgf (T = 986.11; N = 2.11); 20 kgf (T = 969.30; N = 2.07) and 30 kgf (T = 1012.68; N = 2.16). Conclusion: In conclusion, the stresses were concentrated at around the implant and in the medial region of the mandible body when the overdentures were submitted to occlusal forces; axial forces on the molars promoted stress at the implant and the mandible body in the side of loading, and the increase of the force promoted higher stress in both loading types.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Laterally positioned flap with chorion membrane for coverage of isolated gingival miller class III recession p. 150
Deepak Sharma, Pravesh Kumar Jhingta, Arun Singh Thakur, Ashish Justa
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_12_19  
The treatment of gingival recession (GR) defects is indicated for esthetic reasons, to reduce root sensitivity, to remove muscle pull, and to create or augment keratinized tissue. Various root coverage procedures have been used to cover localized GRs, such as laterally repositioned flaps (LPF), coronally advanced flaps, free gingival grafts, connective tissue pedicle flaps with a free gingival graft, subepithelial connective tissue grafts, acellular dermal matrix allografts, and guided tissue regeneration. The predictability of these perioplastic surgery procedures may be associated with different conditions, especially the initial recession classification. This report discusses Miller Class III isolated GR case with interproximal bone loss and wide and deep defects treated with a combination procedure of an LPF and chorion membrane.
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Scleral prosthesis p. 154
Namika Sokhal, Salil Pawah, Amit Gupta, Chetan Pathak
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_23_19  
The special sensory organs play a significant role in our daily lives. The disfigurement from loss of facial structure such as eye can cause psychological and social distress. Phthisis bulbi is an ocular condition caused by wound healing secondary to severe trauma, inflammation, or necrotizing tumor of the eye. Eye prosthesis is the only mode of rehabilitation for missing eye if reconstructive surgery is not possible or desired by a patient. Prefabricated eye or customized ocular prosthesis has their own advantages or disadvantages. Prosthetic rehabilitation of such patients is challenging, and multidisciplinary approach is required to provide satisfactory ocular prosthesis. This article presents a technique for fabrication of semicustomized prosthesis with stock iris and custom-made sclera.
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Reddish-blue lesion of the tongue p. 159
Manveen Kaur Jawanda, Ravi Narula, Vineet Sharma, Priya Gupta
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_20_19  
Although hemangioma is considered as the most common soft-tissue tumors of the head and neck, it is relatively rare in the oral cavity and uncommonly encountered by dental professionals. The occurrence of hemangiomas on the tongue is extremely rare. Changes in blood flow dynamics within hemangioma result in thrombus and phleboliths. This article presents a relatively rare and unusual case of cavernous hemangioma of the dorsum of the tongue with phleboliths in a 55-year-old male.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Needleless acupuncture using low-level laser therapy p. 164
Amandeep Chopra, Amarpreet Kaur, Mallika Sethi, Farheen Khan, Prerna Mohan, Nikhil Sharma
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_25_18  
Introduction: Acupressure works to stimulate (tonify or sedate) specific reflex points located along the lines of energy. In needleless or laser acupuncture, low-intensity lasers are used to stimulate the trigger points, thereby curing many medical conditions. The use of this is called low-level laser therapy (LLLT). The aim of this article is to give a brief overview on needleless acupuncture using LLLT. Methodology: A literature search using keywords such as “laser acupuncture,” “needleless acupuncture,” and “low-level laser therapy” was made on Google Scholar, PubMed, PubMed Central, Science Direct, and Scopus. Results: Needleless acupuncture or laser acupuncture is one of the most popular methods for treating pain in the world. It has proved to be an effective option for various existing treatments and as a supplement to many current treatments as well. Conclusion: Acupressure with lasers is a proven, natural, and cost-effective professional and self-care system of treatment that can improve the quality life of patients.
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Nanoparticles: A promising novel adjunct for dentistry p. 167
Jagat Bhushan, Charu Maini
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_26_19  
Nanotechnology has delivered is impact on almost every facet of science and development. It is but natural that medicine and dentistry too are being influenced by this recent entrant which has immense potential. In contrast to bulk material, these nanoparticles are much more potent and can be manipulated for surface chemistry, charge and bonding capability. This article is a brief overview of current knowledge of nanoparticles and their actions, especially in reference to dentistry.
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