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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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January-March 2020
Volume 12 | Issue 1
Page Nos. 1-61

Online since Monday, January 27, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Prevalence and perception of dental fluorosis among the school-going children and its impact on academic performance p. 1
Niveditha Balamurali, Noorul Sabina Mohamed Thowbieck, Syeda Safoora Amreen, Divyadharshini Chandrasekaran, Kalaivani Karthikeyan, I Anand Sherwood
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_108_19  
Aim: The prevalence of dental fluorosis in Southern India has been reported to be on higher side. In Madurai district, Tamil Nadu, the dental fluorosis incidence among 13–15-year-old school children was observed at 87.7%. The aim of the present investigation is to analyze the prevalence of dental fluorosis among 12–14-year-old school-going children and understand its impact on their academic performance. Materials and Methods: A total 693 students from four different schools were screened for dental fluorosis and severity using Thylstrup–Fejerskov index. Students' academic performance, class attendance, awareness about the condition, esthetic perception about dental fluorosis, and friends' attitude toward their teeth were evaluated. Nonparametric Mann–Whitney U and Kruskal–Wallis tests were employed to assess the influence of dental fluorosis presence on the academic performance. Results: Four hundred and thirteen (59.6%) students had dental fluorosis, and the mean number of teeth affected was 4.15 ± 1.70. Significantly (P < 0.05), marks obtained in each subject, average total marks scored in the last examination, and class attendance percentage were lower in individuals with dental fluorosis. Conclusions: School performance getting significantly affected by the presence of dental fluorosis needs to be further investigated in a controlled environment. Brown stains in dental fluorosis were considered to be of esthetic concern than white opacities among the children.
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To evaluate the effect of storage temperature on the linear dimensional accuracy of delayed and repeat pours of two addition silicone impression materials p. 7
Manish Sen Kinra, Hind M Alghatam, Abrar Ahmed Al Bin Al, Rajashekhara Bhari Sharanesha, Praveen Kumar Khatri, Amit Sharma
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_47_19  
Background: Addition silicone elastomers are the most commonly used impression materials for making final impression for fixed partial dentures, implants, and removable partial dentures. The dimensional stability and accuracy of addition silicone impression material is influenced by the storage time, temperature, and repeat pour. Aim and Objectives: The aims and objectives of this study were to evaluate the accuracy of two different types of addition silicone elastomeric impression materials, stored at different temperatures; to evaluate the accuracy of two different types of addition silicone elastomeric impression materials after delayed and repeated pour; and to compare the linear dimensions of two different types of addition silicone elastomeric impression materials with a control die. Materials and Methods: A machined standard steel master die and a metal custom impression tray were made for making a final impression of machined standard steel master die. The final impression was made by using two different brands of addition silicone impression materials (Aquasil™ Ultra Impression material, Dentsply/Caulk, Milford, DE, USA, and 3M™ ESPE™). Double-step putty light-body impression technique was used for making the final impression. In this manner, a total of eighty impressions were made, and they were divided into two groups namely Group I and Group II. To study the effect of delayed pours and storage temperature, the two groups were further divided into four subgroups, with ten impressions each. All the ten impressions of each subgroup were stored in an acrylizer at 40°C, −10°C for 24 h, −2°C for 48 h, and 0°C for 1 week inside a refrigerator in sealed plastic bags before being poured with type IV dental stone. To study the effect of repeat pours on the accuracy of stone casts, all the ten impressions of each subgroup were immediately re-poured with type IV die stone after the removal of the first set of casts. Thus, again a fresh set of eighty casts were obtained having forty casts to each group. Results: When the impressions were stored in the acrylizer at 40°C, −10°C for 24 h, −2°C for 48 h, and 0°C for 1 week, the addition silicone impression materials did not show any significant change when compared to the control samples. Conclusion: Both the types of addition silicone elastomeric impression materials maintained their accuracy after delayed pours and repeat pours. Storing impressions under different conditions caused no adverse effect upon the accuracy of both types of addition silicone elastomeric impression materials. There was no significant change in the dimensions of stone casts obtained from both impression materials as compared to the dimensions of the master die. Even though if the addition silicone impression material is delayed, i.e. poured up to 1 week, repeat poured, and exposed from − 10°C to 40°C, the linear dimensional accuracy will not be adversely affected.
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A vigilance alert for forensic odontology: Preservation and maintenance of dental records in Central India p. 16
Urvashi Tomar, Bhuvnesh Airen, Priyanka Airen Sarkar, Himanshu Singh, Kundendu Arya Bishen
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_61_19  
Introduction: One of the most encouraging facts about forensic odontology is that it is looked upon today as a reliable methodology which is highly accurate when maintained correctly. Dental tissues are the strongest in the human body. They remain unchanged even after the long period of exposure to extreme conditions. In the field of criminal investigation and medicolegal cases, dental practitioners play a pivotal role. The maintenance of dental records is legally important in most of the European and American countries. Unfortunately, the law is not very clear in India and the awareness is very poor. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in which a questionnaire was designed for the participating dentists to self-assess their awareness regarding forensic odontology and forensic value of the dental records maintained in routine practice. The Chi-square test was used for evaluating the results statistically, and the level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: Our study revealed that the dental practitioners of Madhya Pradesh, India, are not adequately prepared for any kind of forensic and medicolegal need if it arises at all. Conclusion: Our study reveals that there is an alarming call for rectification and improvisation in forensic odontology awareness among the practitioners.
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Comparative efficacy of calcarea phosphorica versus calcium hydroxide materials for the disinfection of remaining carious dentin in deep cavities: An In vivo study p. 21
Saritha Sirikonda, D Sravanthi, Kotagiri Swetha, Swetha Reddy Ankireddy, Shamama Shereen, Mohnish Zulfikar Manva, Kola Srikanth Reddy
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_90_19  
Objectives: The aim of the study was to comparatively evaluate the efficacy of clinical and radiographic effects of calcarea phosphorica (CP) and calcium (Ca)(OH)2(Dycal) in indirect pulp capping of permanent teeth over a period of 6 months. Methodology: Permanent teeth were selected from children between the age group of 7 and 12 years, of which 20 teeth were considered, each for indirect pulp capping with CP and Ca(OH)2, respectively. Increase in dentin thickness was measured at baseline, 3 month, and 6 month on digitized radiographs using CorelDraw software. Results: Independent t-test had indicated that at the end of 3 and 6 months, a statically significant increase in dentin thickness with both CP and Dycal (P ≤ 0.001) was found within the CP group; the thickness of dentin formed was 0.089 mm ± 0.031 mm at first 3 months and 0.055 ± 0.022 mm at the second 3 months (P ≤ 0.001) evaluated using paired t-test. In the Dycal group, increment in dentin deposited was 0.068 mm at the first 3 months and second 3 months. It was 0.030 mm (P ≤ 0.001). Conclusion: Both clinically and radio graphically, CP is superior to Dycal as indirect pulp capping medicament in permanent teeth.
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Oral health status and treatment needs of psychiatric patients in a psychiatric care center, Jammu p. 27
Iqbal Singh, Amarpreet Singh, Robindera Kour, Akhil Menia, Abhiroop Singh, Ramesh Singh
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_117_19  
Objective: Health is a very important asset of all individuals, worldwide. The prevalence of mental disease is increasing in an alarming rate, which is estimated to be 6–7 million people torment with severe mental disorders and is about ten times more with mild mental disorders. This study is conducted to assess the oral health status and estimate the dental treatment needs of hospitalized psychiatric patients. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted for a period of 2 months at a psychiatric hospital. In the study, 275 patients were examined by the investigator. The Chi-square test was applied to discrete data and one-way ANOVA for continuous data. Multivariate analyses were carried out to test the association of age, frequency of cleaning teeth, and materials used for cleaning teeth. Results: The results revealed high caries prevalence, poor oral hygiene and periodontal health, and extensive unmet dental treatment needs. Conclusion: Psychiatric patients are the special groups in the community who require special care and social support from not only from the family but also from the society. Dentists are required to understand the psychiatric illness and oral health implications and carry out preventive measures to prevent oral diseases, for which the psychiatric patients are at high risk to occur.
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Pulmonary function test in OSMF patients p. 33
Rashmi Nivsarkar, Abhijeet Deoghare, Anukriti Vishwakarma, Pooja Salkar
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_14_19  
Betel nut quid chewing is a common psychoactive substance or masticatory euphoriant used by 600 million people in the world and is a main etiological factor for Oral Submucous Fibrosis (OSMF). The areca nut metabolite arecoline causes aggravation of disease in asthmatics by increasing bronchoconstriction in a dose-dependent manner; however, the effect of betel (Areca catechu) nut chewing on the function of the normal human lungs is yet to be fully established. Aim: The aim of the study was to measure and to compare pulmonary function tests such as forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume (FEV), FEV/FVC%, peak expiratory flow rate, and maximum voluntary capacity maximum voluntary capacity (MVV) between study groups (control and OSMF). Materials and Methods: The study population included 100 participants comprising 50 normal and 50 clinically diagnosed OSMF cases. Pulmonary function tests were assessed using spirometer. Data were statistically analyzed. Results: Pulmonary function tests were found to be decreased in OSMF patients when compared to controls. Conclusion: There were no statistically significant differences (P > 0.05) in the spirometry parameters between both the groups; however, a decrease in pulmonary function compared to normal can be a warning sign for obstructive and restrictive type of pulmonary disease.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Construction of a gunning splint; Case report on the handling of mandibular fractures in edentulous patients p. 36
Bhumika Sharma, Prabal Sharma, Roma Goswami, Shailesh Jain, Rupandeep Kaur Samra
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_92_19  
Establishing anatomic reduction of an edentulous mandible fracture is a frequently acknowledged challenge in craniomaxillofacial trauma surgery in elderly patients due to compromised medical condition, lack of occlusive dental surfaces to capitalize on maxillomandibular fixation and various contraindications for the surgical approach. The solution is to overcome such problems in an edentulous mandible is to create occlusal guidance by either making dentures or by fabricating intraoral splints to guide in the reduction of jaws in correct alignment. For such conditions, “Gunning splint” is a better option as it provides close reduction and stabilization of mandibular fracture. A case report is presented here where close collaboration between an oral surgeon and a prosthodontist comes into role. The oral surgeon, after assessing the exact nature and extent of fracture, must communicate with the prosthodontist regarding the type of splint and management of fracture for the improvement of the patient's prognosis.
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An unwonted case report of nonsyndromic oligodontia p. 40
Sumita Jain, Priyanka Gupta, Himanshu Kanungo
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_79_19  
Dental agenesis is a common developmental anomaly that affects approximately 20% of the population and results in a reduction of the number of teeth present in the oral cavity. Very rarely, more than one anomaly caused due to varying local etiological factors are seen in one patient. The aetiology of dental agenesis may be attributed to either environmental or genetic causes. Environmental factors include, different types of traumas to the alveolar processes, rubella, radiotherapy, use of chemical substances or drugs, as thalidomide and chemotherapy and disturbances in the innervations of the jaw. The absence of teeth is a clinical and public health problem, since the patients in these conditions may present several signs and symptoms as masticatory problems, malocclusion, problems in articulating words, and also the aesthetics may be compromised. These complications may affect self-esteem, behaviour pattern, and social life of these patients. Regarding the diagnosis of oligodontia, it is normally based on radiographic evidence and routine clinical examination, detecting absence of teeth or delayed eruption of them. The panoramic radiography is the most indicated for the diagnosis and study of agenesis, due to this radiographic exam register all maxilla-mandibular regions as well as the development of the tooth germ of the patient with minimal radiation. The motive of this article is to report a case of multiple local etiological factors as the cause of malocclusion and the interceptive management of the case, to prevent aesthetic, functional and psychological problems.
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Interdisciplinary management of root perforation along with regeneration of bony fenestrations and dehiscence p. 45
Aakriti Sharma, Shivjot Chhina, Mousumi Goswami, Sachit Anand Arora
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_16_19  
A surface alveolar bony defect communicating with the root canal perforation can be either endodontic or periodontal origin. Breach in the continuity of the cortical plate may lead to the development of dehiscence and fenestration alveolar defects. This case report discusses the regeneration of periodontal tissues in fenestration and dehiscence defects that had developed around traumatized incisors, using a type I collagen membrane and bone graft along with root perforation repair emphasizing the requirement of an interdisciplinary approach for the management of endodontic-periodontal lesions. The alveolar defects such as fenestration and dehiscences profoundly affect the prognosis of both periodontal and endodontic treatment outcomes; therefore, it should be carefully diagnosed and managed.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Dental ozone: A boon for dentistry p. 49
Tamanna Malik, Sameer Kaura, Prachi Kakria
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_27_19  
In today's world dentistry is quite dynamic. New materials and protocols are developing at a rapid pace. Ozone a triatomic molecule, blue colored gas is not at all new but it has become a new treatment modality in dentistry over the conventional therapeutic modalities. Use of ozone is based on its antimicrobial, antihypoxic and immunostimulating properties. Ozone is used in the form of ozone gas, ozonated water and oil. Its applications includes caries prevention as a disinfectant, irrigant, antimicrobial agent and adjunct to periodontal therapy and in osteoradionecrosis of jaw. Ozone is used in all the aspects of dentistry because of its biocompatibility. The primary objective of this article is to provide a general review about the applications of ozone in dentistry.
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XP endo® file: An update review p. 53
Harakh Chand Baranwal, Nidhi Singh, Amrita Kumari
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_74_19  
Clinical research has still focus on three-dimensional (3D) cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the oval root canal by improving irrigation, creating new alloys for instruments, and creating new sealers. This article only deals the MaxWire® technology instruments XP Endo® Shaper, Finisher, and XP Endo® Retreatment file and analyzes how they are effective in 3D cleaning and shaping, in biofilm removal, triple antibiotic paste removal, and also for debris and smear layer removal.
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Comparative evaluation of physical properties of commercially available silicone-based soft denture liners and acrylic-based soft denture liners p. 56
Rasleen Kaur Pahuja, Sameer Kaura, Neethu Roy
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_30_19  
Elastic materials used in dental prosthetics to line removable dentures should be characterized by biocompatibility toward oral tissues, shape, and color stability; resistance to abrasion; and durability of the junction between the lining and the denture. The resilient lining materials present problems during clinical use, such as weakening of bond between lining and denture loss of resiliency, color alterations, and porosity. This review was aimed to compare and evaluate the physical properties of soft denture liners acrylic and silicone based and to determine which denture liners would be best suited for clinical usage. A review protocol was structured on the basis of the guidelines proposed by the PRISMA statement and Centre for Reviews and Dissemination. Overall, the results indicated that silicone-based soft denture liners performed significantly better than acrylic-based soft denture liners when compared for color stability, surface hardness, tensile bond strength, water sorption, and solubility, concluding that silicone-based soft liners would be better for long-term clinical use.
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