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   Table of Contents - Current issue
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July-September 2020
Volume 12 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 117-186

Online since Friday, August 14, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Comparative evaluation of twisted and protaper files in pediatric endodontics – In-vitro study Highly accessed article p. 117
Inderjeet Singh, Puneet Goyal, Manita Bansal, Ritesh Gupta, Shaveta Garg, Bhawana Arora
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_33_19  
Aim: The aim of the present in-vitro study was to evaluate the cutting efficiency of two nickel-titanium (NiTi) file systems, Twisted File (TF) and ProTaper file. Materials and Methods: Thirty extracted human primary tooth root canals were randomly divided into two groups with 15 root canals each. All the root canals after injected with Indian ink were instrumented with ProTaper Rotary NiTi files and Rotary NiTi TFs. All the root canals were then cleared to make them transparent. After the teeth appeared clear, they were observed under a stereomicroscope to check for residual Indian ink in the canals and scored. The data thus obtained were statistically analyzed with Chi-square test and Mann–Whitney test. Results: The mean of scoring of Group I, i.e., Rotary TF system, was 1.0. The mean of scoring of Group II, i.e., ProTaper Rotary file system, was 1.40. Conclusions: Root canal instrumentation of primary teeth showed nonsignificant differences in the cutting ability between the two systems of ProTaper and TF Rotary which were investigated, but signified a more even and uniform removal of dentin with the TF system.
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Sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with developmental dental hard-tissue anomalies in children with primary dentition p. 121
Nneka Kate Onyejaka, Emmanuel Obiajulu Amobi, Olubukola Olamide Olatosi
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_127_19  
Introduction: Developmental dental hard-tissue anomalies include anomalies of number, size, shape, and structure of the teeth. Anomalies in primary dentition are associated with anomalies in the permanent dentition. The present study identified the sociodemographic and behavioral factors associated with developmental dental hard-tissue anomalies in primary dentition. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 433 preschool children aged 5 years and below in Enugu East Local Government Area, Enugu, Nigeria. Data on sociodemographic profile were collected, and clinical examination was conducted on the children to record the presence of double tooth, hypodontia, hyperdontia (supernumerary), microdontia, talons cusp, hypoplasia, and Hutchinson's incisors. Results: The prevalence of developmental dental hard-tissue anomalies was 14 (3.2%). Five-year-old children (28.6%), male children (57.1%), and children belonging to high socioeconomic status (50.0%) had developmental dental hard-tissue anomalies, and there was a statistically significant association between past dental visit (P < 0.001) and developmental dental hard-tissue anomalies. There was no statistically significant association between age (P = 0.80), sex (P = 0.75), socioeconomic status (P = 0.83), and developmental dental hard-tissue anomalies. The most common developmental dental anomaly was double tooth (1.6%), whereas talons cusp (0.2%) and hyperdontia (0.2%) occurred the least. The upper central incisors were affected the most (48.5%). Conclusion: The prevalence of developmental dental hard-tissue anomalies was low, and past dental visit was associated with developmental dental hard-tissue anomalies in this population.
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Awareness of oral cancer, oral premalignant disorders and their risk factors among adult population in Bareilly city p. 126
Shivani Singh, Abhijeet Alok, L Nagesh, KK Shivalingesh, Vikash Kumar Sah, Indra Deo Singh
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_133_19  
Background: Oral cancer and oral premalignant disorders (OPMDs) are serious problems worldwide. Awareness regarding the signs, symptoms, and risk factors of oral cancer is very less in India, especially in people with low socioeconomic status. Aim and Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the awareness of oral cancer, OPMD and their risk factors among the adult population in Bareilly City and the objective was to investigate the level of public awareness regarding the risk factors associated with oral cancer and OPMD among a selected sample of the adult population in Bareilly City. Materials and Methods: The present study was a house–to-house survey in Bareilly City, Uttar Pradesh (India). A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data from a random sample of 800 subjects from different colonies of Bareilly City. The questionnaire included 25 questions pertaining to knowledge about oral cancer, its causative factors, key symptoms, and others. Each subject was given questionnaire, and filled form was collected from each subject. Results: About 71.8% of total subjects were aware of oral cancer while 43.3% people were aware of oral potentially malignant disorders. Subjects who studied till postgraduation were more aware about oral cancer. Professionals (82.8%) were more aware about oral cancer followed by housewives. Middle-age group (75.2%) participants were also found to be more aware. Conclusion: Awareness of oral cancer and OPMD were poor in homemakers, less skilled and uneducated persons, indicating an urgent need to implement public health education and promotion strategies.
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Evolution of endodontic treatment at 12-month follow-up in patients with diabetes mellitus p. 132
Juan Manuel Guízar-Mendoza, América Montserrath Pérez-Hernández, Norma Amador-Licona, Mauricio González del Castillo-Silva, Zaira Campos-Ortega, Víctor Manuel Arredondo-Aguilera
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_125_19  
Background: Although periodontal disease is the most frequent reason for extraction in endodontically treated teeth, few studies have evaluated patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). In this study, we compared the success of endodontic treatment and the evolution of periapical lesion (PL) in patients with and without T2D. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort including 58 patients who received endodontic treatment (31 with and 27 without T2D) 12 months before. Success of endodontic treatment, evolution of PL, and type of restoration were evaluated. Results: Treatment success was found in 16 (64%) and 23 (85%) patients with and without T2D, respectively (P = 0.07). Patients with diabetes had an increased failure to endodontic treatment risk (relative risk 1.68 [95% confidence interval 1.001–2.845]). The PL reduced or disappeared in 20 (74%) patients without and in 12 (48%) with T2D (P = 0.02). In patients with T2D, HbA1c levels were lower in those with successful treatment than in those with failure in treatment (6.23 ± 0.37 vs. 6.88 ± 0.34, P ≤ 0.001), respectively. Conclusion: Diabetes mellitus has a negative impact on the evolution of endodontic treatment and PL after 12-month follow-up, and it is related to metabolic control.
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Emergency preparedness of oral health professionals during COVID-19 pandemic: A knowledge, attitude, and practices study Highly accessed article p. 137
Pankaj Bansal, Archna Agnihotri, Ashish Gupta, Geetanjali Singh, Antervir Kaur, Rosy Arora, Shilpa Singh
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_88_20  
Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an emerging respiratory disease caused by a novel coronavirus and was first reported in Wuhan, China. Affecting almost 207 countries, COVID-19 was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020.[1] Considering social distancing as first-line measure of reducing the transmission of disease, nationwide lockdown in India was announced. Health-care professionals and first responders are considered to be high-risk groups for the transmission of the virus. As oral health professionals form, a significant risk group for infection and need to take all transmission-based precautions to prevent the transmission of the disease. Keeping that in view, various advisories were also issued to provide interim guidance to the dental practitioners during this pandemic. This study was designed to have an insight into problems and deficiencies faced by the dental fraternity in the practical application of their knowledge in today's changing scenario. Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the knowledge, attitude, and practices of dentists across North India during the COVID-19 pandemic. Materials and Methods: Dental practitioners across North India were requested to take part in the online survey. Survey forms were sent in the form of Google document. Four hundred and ten survey questionnaires were sent to dental practitioners in the northern Indian region. Three hundred and thirty responses were received with response rate equivalent to 80.4%. Statistics were applied to analyze the responses. Conclusion: Dentists across North India are well informed and aware of the changing scenarios during COVID-19 Pandemic. They seemed to be optimistic and trying to keep themselves abreast of the latest guidelines and providing emergency dental care in the best possible way with an intent to serve their community.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Plausible occupational impact on familial Treacher–Collins syndrome: Dental findings and management p. 145
Namita Kalra, Rishi Tyagi, Amit Khatri, Puja Sabherwal, Padma Yangdol
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_38_20  
Treacher–Collins syndrome (TCS) is a disorder of autosomal dominant inheritance commonly linked to the mutation of human gene TREACLE (Treacher–Collins–Franceschetti 1). It primarily affects the structures derived from the first and second brachial arches by leading to neuroepithelial cell apoptosis and failure of neural crest cell migration. TCS commonly presents with anomalies of zygoma, mandible, and ears with typical bird-like facies. The variation in severity is found to increase over generations and is affected by environmental factors and stochastic events. The paper presents a case of familial TCS in a mother and daughter with increased severity in the second generation; it also illustrates the correlation of occupational impact due to cumulative maternal exposure to polyvinyl acetate-based adhesive resin as an occupational hazard for over 30 years.
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Perplexing presentation of squamous cell carcinoma as gingival lesion p. 149
Narendra M Reddy, Aruna Namdev Daware, Roshan Prabhakar Dhonge, Sapnil Gaidhankar
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_40_20  
Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is a malignant epithelial neoplasm, and the gingiva is the third most common site when the oral SCCs are concerned. The diagnosis of such gingival lesions is confusing because of its variable and chronic inflammatory lesion-like presentation. Because of its benign features, early detection is difficult, which reduces the high cure rate. A 50-year-old female patient was reported with a 4-month history of painless gingival overgrowth in the maxillary palatal aspect in relation to 21–24 with evident right submandibular lymphadenopathy. The diagnosis was made on the basis of a thorough history of the patient, clinical examination, and histopathological findings. The patient was referred for contrast-enhanced computed tomography to record the extent of metastasis, and the decision of surgical excision of the lesion was taken.
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Expediting the prosthodontic management of a patient of phthisis bulbi p. 153
Abhishek Kumar Gupta, Mamta Kumari, Rekha Gupta, Shubhra Gill
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_53_20  
Eyes are generally the first feature to be noted on one's face. The loss of an eye can be socially, emotionally, and psychologically a very traumatic experience for the patient. Ocular prosthesis plays an important role in restoring the self-esteem and confidence of the patient. Enucleation results in the entire removal of orbital contents whereas, uniocular phthisis bulbi is a condition, in which the eye is shrunken and cornified. This presents a challenging condition for rehabilitation because of a lack of space for the prosthesis. This article aims to explain the challenges while making a customized scleral shell prosthesis over an existing eyeball to obtain optimum cosmetic and functional results.
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Odontogenic myxofibroma arising in a patient with a past history of carcinoma p. 157
Joshna Rani Premara, Anusha Vaddi, Ajay Kumar Enibera, Haritha Kiranmai Balli
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_36_20  
Odontogenic myxofibroma (MF) is a benign odontogenic neoplasm that predominantly occurs in the mandible. It is a variant of odontogenic myxoma. There are several case reports of odontogenic MF reported in the literature. However, none of them were associated with a past history of malignancy. This article presents a case of odontogenic MF in a patient with a past history of treated carcinoma of the breast and rectum.
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Nonsurgical management of blunderbuss canals p. 160
Munish Singla, Parminder Kaur, Harleen Kaur, Litik Mittal, Monika Garg, Saloni Gupta
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_118_19  
Proper hermetic seal is difficult to achieve in cases of incompletely formed apex of the tooth. In present case reports, apexification procedure was performed with the help of Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (MTA). Case 1 is a 14-year-old female who presented with a chief complaint of discolored tooth and also revealed a history of trauma 5–6 years ago. Case 2 is a 14-year-old male patient who presented with a history of grossly decayed upper front teeth. Proper diagnosis was made with the help of radiographic investigation. Treatment options were discussed with the patient. MTA apical plug formation was done followed by root canal treatment.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Tooth fragment re–attachment in an incompletely formed root: A case report with literature review p. 163
Shivesh Acharya, Shruti Singh, Sarabjot Kaur Bhatia
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_2_20  
Coronal fractures of anterior teeth are the most common form of dental trauma that occur in children and adolescence. They cause functional, aesthetics and psychological problems for both their children and parents. Intact tooth fragment provides a very conservative approach for reattachment of dental fragment. Owing to its good long lasting aesthetics (as tooth's original anatomic form, color and surface texture are maintained) and functional restorability it provides a better alternative as compared to the resin based composite or crown restoration. It overcomes the problem of repeated reconstruction of composite with age and provides a positive psychological response. The article reports a case of a child with anterior tooth fracture that was successfully treated using tooth fragment reattachment. It aims to review and discuss the methodology along with different preparation techniques and adhesives used by various authors and analyze the advancement and most accepted procedure for of the treatment. It also highlights the shortcomings of the technique as patient cooperation determines the prognosis of the procedure and a long term follow up determines the success of the procedure.
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Magnets – Role in prosthodontic rehabilitation: A review p. 168
Reena Roy Rassawet, Sanjeev Mittal, Himanshi Kalra
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_52_20  
The success of prosthesis bases on retention stability and support. Magnets have been used as an aid for denture retention for many years with some success. The reason of the popularity of magnets is their small size and their attraction or repulsion forces, which allow them to be placed within prosthesis without being obtrusive in the mouth. Conventional magnets have been used as retentive devices for removable partial dentures, obturators, and also the maxillofacial prosthesis. The retentive forces and the compactness of the rare earth magnets particularly have resulted in their widespread use for overdentures. This article reviews the type of magnet available, design of magnetic attachment, their application, and new magnetic attachment system, followed by the advantage and disadvantage of magnets.
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Dealing with dental patients during and after coronavirus disease 2019 outbreak p. 172
Saransh Srivastava, Priyanka Tandon
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_54_20  
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak was declared a pandemic on March 11, 2020. Several dental care facilities in affected countries have been completely closed or have been only providing minimal treatment for emergency cases. However, several facilities in some affected countries are still providing regular dental treatment. This can, in part, be a result of the lack of universal protocol or guidelines regulating the dental care provision during such a pandemic. This lack of guidelines can, on the one hand, increase the nosocomial COVID-19 spread through dental health care facilities, and on the other hand, deprive patients' in need of the required urgent dental care. Moreover, ceasing dental care provision during such a period will incense the burden on hospital emergency departments already struggle with the pandemic. This review article is aimed to develop guidelines for dental patients' management during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.
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Sinus lift procedures in dental implants: A literature review on techniques, recommendations, and complications p. 180
S Devameena, DS Dinesh, G LakshmiDevi, G Shanmugavadivel
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_123_19  
Posterior atrophic maxilla with pneumatized sinus often challenges dental implant surgery. Sinus lift in order to augment the residual alveolar ridge height resulted in various sinus lift surgical techniques. Sinus augmentation in atrophic maxilla transforms the atrophic posterior maxilla to a favorable place for implant placement. Additional surgery of sinus lift during implant placement becomes a difficult decision for both dentist and patient. This literature search focuses on many valuable articles that support evidence on the treatment options and predictable increase in bone height after sinus lift procedure. This literature review explains on the classification of posterior atropic maxilla and its treatment options, sinus lift techniques, recommendations, complications, and a precise discussion that supports this procedure.
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