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   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
April-June 2020
Volume 12 | Issue 2
Page Nos. 63-115

Online since Thursday, May 21, 2020

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ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

To evaluate the knowledge of dental implants and peri-implantitis among various medical professionals across himachal pradesh: A questionnaire-based prospective study Highly accessed article p. 63
Ashish Bali, Rimsha Ahmed, Prashant Pathania, Amarpreet Singh, Pankaj Chauhan, Shubh Karmanjit Singh Bawa
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_28_20  
Aim and Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of dental implants and peri-implantitis among various medical professionals across Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 medical professions residing in Himachal Pradesh using a self-explanatory questionnaire. The survey consisted of 11 self-explanatory questionnaires. The nature and purpose of the survey was explained to the professionals. Results: The present study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of dental implants and peri-implantitis among 100 medical professionals. The results shows that although the medical practitioner do have some knowledge about dental implants, but still there is a scope of improvement about the knowledge of dental implants and peri-implant diseases. Conclusions: The results of this survey showed that majority of the medical professionals working in the state of Himachal Pradesh, were aware about dental implants as a treatment modality for the replacement of missing teeth. However, there is a deficit in the level of information regarding peri-implant diseases and the effect of systemic diseases and condition on dental implants, so further education is required.
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Comparative evaluation of three different an obturating materials in pulpectomy; An in vivo study p. 68
Chanchal Goinka, Kola Srikanth Reddy, Aruna Ganapathi, K Harshitha Nallagula, Alekya Kondapaneni, VV N. Sunil
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_1_20  
Objectives: The aim of this study was to clinically evaluate, radiographically zinc oxide eugenol (ZOE) paste, metapex, and Alo vera gel with zinc oxide powder as root canal filling material in primary teeth. Methodology: In the present study, pulpectomies were performed on 51 primary second molar in 55 children, aged between 4 and 9 years, of these, 24 children were randomly divided into three groups of 17 teeth each selected for endodontic treatment. Obturation was done with a mixture of ZOE paste, metapex and A. vera gel with ZOE powder. Clinical, radiographic evaluation was done after 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months. Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact test and Cochran's Q-test, and the value of P was set at 0.05. Results: The three pastes achieved convergent clinical and radiographic success within the three observation periods (P > 0.05). ZOE paste was the slowest in its resorption. Conclusion: Zinc oxide powder with A. vera gel can be used as alternatives to ZOE and metapex.
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Management of foreign body in the maxillofacial region – A retrospective study p. 73
S Devakumari, N Bhavani Rekha, T Vijhayapriya, Neil Dominic, S Devameena
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_32_20  
Background: Foreign bodies (FBs) in the maxillofacial region are not rare due to increasing trends of accidents and interpersonal assaults. This leads due to a steady increase in facial injuries. The management of FB starts with the development of strong clinical suspicion of the presence of FB during the initial wound examination. Face being the most appealing and esthetic part of the body, early recognition and removal of FB decrease the patient's morbidity. Further, chronic infection and recurrent surgeries can be avoided. Objectives: This retrospective study gives the clinical experience of the management of FB in the maxillofacial region in most referred tertiary care government hospital in South India. Further, the intricacies and the sequence of effective management were discussed in detail. Materials and Methods: A retrospective study was conducted in the Department of Dentistry, Government Rajaji hospital, Madurai Medical College, Tamil Nadu, India, for 5 years from 2014 to 2019 on the management of FBs in the maxillofacial region. Patient's records were analyzed for demographic data, etiology, clinical presentation, investigation, type of FB, and management. Results: Thirty-five patients were treated in the period of 5 years. Out of 35 patients, males were predominantly treated for retrieval of FB; the most common etiology is renal tubular acidosis, most of them presented early; computed tomography is the diagnostic modality used to detect most of the FB; the most common type of FB is the glass followed by wood, and the removal of FB was predominantly done under General anaesthesia (GA). Conclusion: Early recognition of FB in the maxillofacial region is important. This hastens the removal along with the management of fractures, if any without additional investigations and surgery.
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Comparative evaluation of three different intraorifice barrier on fracture resistance of endodontically treated teeth: an in vitro study p. 77
Mitali Jain, Anika Mittal, Aditi Dhaundiyal, Nidhi Sharma, Tuba Siddiqui, Vaibhav Kelkar
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_4_20  
Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the role of three different intraorifice barrier materials on resistance to fracture of obturated teeth with seal-apex sealer. Subjects and Methods: Eighty extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were decoronated to approximately similar dimension, and prepared and obturated with gutta-percha and seal-apex sealer. For the placement of different intraorifice barrier materials, the coronal 3-mm gutta-percha was removed except for the control group. The specimens were divided into four groups (n = twenty) on the basis of the intraorifice barrier material used. Group I: Mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA), Group II: Cention N, Group III: Nanohybrid composite, Group IV: Control, Fracture resistance of the specimens was tested. Statistical Analysis Used: It was done by the statistical software SPSS version 16.0. One-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's HSD test and independent t-test was used. Results: Fracture resistance of endodontically treated tooth was significantly affected by the type of intraorifice barrier used (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The use of nanohybrid composite significantly improved fracture resistance followed by cention N and MTA as compared to the control group.
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Perception and practices with regard to tooth shade selection for composite restoration among dentists in Southwest, Nigeria p. 80
Lillian Lami Enone, Afolabi Oyapero, John O Makanjuola
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_132_19  
Background: The perception of tooth color is an important goal for the dentist who needs to choose the right tooth shade to create satisfactory esthetic restorations as well as for the patient who desires a better smile. The success of any tooth-colored (anterior) restoration is however directly related to the accuracy of chairside shade selection The aim of this study was to determine the knowledge and practices of dentists on shade selection in composite restorations in Southwest, Nigeria. Materials and Methods: This descriptive self-administered questionnaire-based study was conducted among 200 randomly enlisted dentists selected by multistage sampling in the Southwest of Nigeria. Chi-square statistical test was utilized for categorical variables, while the independent t-test was used to compare the mean values in subgroups. A multivariate linear regression model was used to assess the association between predictor variables and knowledge scores. The level of significance in this study was set at 0.05. Results: Majority of respondents had good knowledge (67.5%), while 60.5% of them had good practices. The highest proportion (66.5%) used only visual shade selection in natural daylight (89.0%), while only 48% determine the tooth shade at the cervical, middle, and incisal third of the tooth; 73% had never taken a color blind test. Dentists had practiced for more than 10 years and restorative dentistry consultants had significantly better knowledge about shade selection. Respondents who had poor knowledge had significantly poorer shade selection practices (P = 0.036). After controlling for confounders by multivariate logistic regression, all categories of dentists with good knowledge and consultants still had significantly better dental shade selection practices. Conclusion: Experienced dentists and restorative consultants appear to have adequate knowledge about shade selection and this had a significant impact on their practice. A need however exists to bridge the gap among other categories of dental personnel to improve the esthetic outcome of composite restorations.
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Comparative evaluation of the efficacy of three commercially available toothpastes on dentin hypersensitivity reduction: an 8-week clinical study p. 87
Swathi Venkataramana, Selva Kumar Jeyaraman, Sai Sarath Kumar Kothimbakkam, Burnice Nalina Kumari Chellathurai
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_64_18  
Objective: The objective of this 8-week, single-center, double-blind, three-cell, randomized, clinical study was to compare the efficacy in reducing the dentin hypersensitivity of three commercially available toothpaste: Group A toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate; Group B toothpaste containing 8% strontium acetate and 1040 ppm fluoride as sodium fluoride; and Group C toothpaste containing 5% potassium nitrate and 917 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate. Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty subjects, who reported to the department having teeth sensitive to tactile and air blast hypersensitivity, were assigned to one of the three study groups (50/group). Subjects were then asked to brush their teeth for 1 min, twice daily, with the given toothpaste. The dentin hypersensitivity of the two selected teeth was evaluated at baseline, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Comparison of the treatment groups was conducted using the VAS analysis. Results: All 150 subjects complied with the protocol and completed the 8-week clinical study; there were no adverse events on the soft or hard tissues of the oral cavity. Group A resulted in more improvement in the reduction of sensitivity at 2, 4, and 8 weeks compared to the other groups. Conclusions: Group A toothpaste containing 8.0% arginine, calcium carbonate, and 1450 ppm fluoride as sodium monofluorophosphate significantly reduces dentin hypersensitivity and more effective than Group B and Group C toothpaste. Group A toothpaste is the latest new tool in the armament of the modern dentist.
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The prevalence of anxiety and fear in dental patients: A short study p. 92
Deepak Chaudhary, Shipra Saxena, Deviprasad Mahanta, Parul Yadav, Shoha H Patel, Sarita Agarwal, Karandeep Singh Arora
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_112_19  
Background: Dental anxiety and fear are the major complications for both patient and dental care providers. The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of dental anxiety and fear in patients visiting the dental institute with respect to their gender. Materials and Methods: In the present study, 100 patients were provided with certain questionnaire which included two sections. The first section concerning age, gender, educational level, frequency of dental visits, reasons for irregular attendance, and existence of past traumatic experience. The second section comprises modified dental anxiety scale. Data was collected and analyzed with respect to gender using the statistical analysis. Results and Conclusion: Anxiety-associated dental treatment is widespread in the study population. Dental anxiety was higher in women and in the patients with traumatic dental experiences.
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CASE REPORTS Top

Case study – Rehabilitation after removal of an extensive odontogenic keratocyst: Treatment in big bone defects p. 95
Marcus Schiller, Björn Rahlf, Philipp Jehn, Vasilios Alevizakos
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_7_20  
Odontogenic keratocysts are not uncommon in dental practice. Besides the removal of the cyst, regular follow-up checks are also important, as they facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of recurrent cysts. The successful removal of the cyst is followed by prosthetic rehabilitation. The focus should be on the objectives of restoring the patient's ability to chew and on resolving any issues affecting speech. Using templates for the implantation procedure ensures the correct positioning of the implants. If a template is used, any additional augmentation that may be required can be performed precisely at the site of the planned implantation, thus preventing over-augmentation.
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Sialodocholithiasis - A case report and review p. 98
Ashima Bali Behl, Salvina Grewal, Bharti Lamba, Vikram Bali
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_102_19  
A majority of sialoliths occur in the submandibular gland or its duct and are a common cause of acute and chronic infections. This report describes the case of a patient who had an unusual submandibular gland duct sialolith (calculus) that was completely obstructing the submandibular gland duct (sialodocholithiasis) and the use of the computed tomography and ultrasonography as a diagnostic aid and a surgical guide. Patients with sialolithiasis require definitive surgical treatment in most cases, which results in an excellent prognosis. Along with presenting the case report, this article also reviews the etiology, diagnosis, and various treatment modalities available for the management of salivary gland calculi depending on their site and size.
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REVIEW ARTICLES Top

Distomolars – Exploring the known entity p. 103
Dinesh Chand Patidar, Deepika Patidar
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_10_20  
A supernumerary tooth is one that is additional to the normal series and can be found in any region of the dental arch. A distomolar, also called as “fourth molars,” is a supernumerary tooth that is positioned distal to third molars. Distomolar can be found completely erupted in the dental arch, or it could be partially or entirely impacted. This literature review attempts to highlight the prevalence, etiology, morphology, complications, and diagnosis of distomolars. Various literatures reveal that supernumerary teeth are more frequently seen in the maxilla with a male predilection and their prevalence in the permanent dentition has been approximated to range from 0.1% to 3.6%. A distomolar may have a normal morphology or have a much smaller dimension than adjacent third molars. Molariform (tuberculated) shape is most frequently observed by various authors in their studies. Distomolars are usually found impacted within the jaws and may lead to several complications. Even though the frequency of distomolars is low, dental surgeons should always be aware of the presence of distomolars during radiographic or clinical examinations. A thorough knowledge and information about this supernumerary entity may definitely provide a hope for an early detection and appropriated treatment planning so as to prevent or minimize any complications created by them.
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The possible link between periodontitis and orodigestive cancer: An overview p. 109
Siddharth Mallapragada, Himani Sharma, Stuti Gupta
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_115_19  
Increasing evidences are found in the literature lately regarding the association between periodontitis and orodigestive tract cancers. Periodontopathic bacteria resulting in periodontal disease, acts as a risk factor for the initiation and development of carcinoma. They have been shown to act through various mechanisms including inhibition of apoptosis, activation of cellular proliferation, and others. This review is an attempt to find the possible connecting mechanism between the aforesaid.
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Nucleostemin: A new trailblazer in oral squamous cell carcinoma – A brief review p. 113
Sayani Shome, Rudra Prasad Chatterjee, Sanchita Kundu, Sanjeet Kumar Das
DOI:10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_3_20  
Nucleostemin (NS) is a guanine nucleotide binding protein like 3 (GNLP 3) found in the nucleolus in neuroepithelial stem cells, embryonic stem cells and in cancer stem cells. It is observed to be an initiator for uncontrolled cellular proliferation that is responsible for cancer progression by interaction with p53, mouse double minute 2 (MDM2) and cell-cycle.
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