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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2022  |  Volume : 14  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 185-192

Third-order effects and maxillary incisor control in lingual orthodontics – A finite element study of a ribbon arch and edgewise straight wire system


1 Department of Orthodontics, Government Dental College, Silchar, Assam, India
2 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, GNRC Hospitals, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Guwahati, Assam, India
3 Department of Orthodontics, I.T.S. Dental College Hospital and Research Centre, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Siddhartha Kaustav Konwar
Ratnakunj, House No. 3, Seuji Path, Hatigaon, Guwahati - 781 038, Assam
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/ijds.ijds_93_21

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Introduction: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effects of retraction mechanics on torque control when retraction forces were applied on the maxillary anterior dentition in two distinct lingual appliance systems. Materials and Methods: A three-dimensional bilateral maxillary model was created where the first premolar extraction case was included. 150 g (1.47 N) of retraction force was applied on each side from canine (C) hook to molar for both edgewise straight wire system and ribbonarch appliances. Results: In the edgewise appliance, it was observed in the X-axis that there was less amount of tipping of the six anterior teeth of the canine and central incisor (CI) when compared with the lateral incisor (LI) at occlusal point. In the Y-axis, overall extrusion was observed. In the Z-axis, there was less lingual crown movement. In the ribbonarch appliance, it was observed in the X-axis that there was less tipping, prominently in the canine and CI than in the LI. In the Y-axis, overall extrusion was observed. In the Z-axis, there was less lingual crown movement, whereas the CI and canine showed less movement when compared with the LI. Conclusions: It was observed that there was greater torque loss and extrusion in the edgewise appliance along with greater maximum principal stress in the cervical half of the facial side in the periodontal ligament (PDL) and minimum principal stress on the cervical half of the palatal side in the PDL when compared with the ribbonarch appliance.


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