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Year : 2021  |  Volume : 13  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 294-297

Saliva as a reliable diagnostic tool during the coronavirus disease times: A focused review

1 Department of Orthodontics, SIBAR Institute of Dental Sciences, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
2 NRI Academy of Medical Sciences, Guntur, Andhra Pradesh, India
3 Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeon, Bharathi's Ora Care, Yelahanka, Bangalore, India

Correspondence Address:
K Raghu Nandan
Private Practioner, Bharathi's Ora Care, No. 737 & 707, Yelahanka New Town, Bengaluru - 560 064, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_206_20

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Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), also currently known as CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19), has created a global health upheaval. The saliva of an infected person serves as a source for the transmission of CoV. The angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 receptors serve as the host receptor cells for CoV which is expressed in high numbers in salivary glands, oral mucosa, and gingiva. The salivary gland is a potential reservoir for COVID-19 even in asymptomatic but infected carriers. This knowledge could be used to employ salivary sampling as a noninvasive diagnostic method. IgA, IgM antibodies detected in self-collected saliva show more stability than RNA and may aid in the identification of asymptomatic patients. Saliva shows high sensitivity and specificity in the diagnosis of COVID-19 with >90% concordance reported between the saliva and nasopharyngeal swabs. Standardization with respect to sample collection, storage, and transport media can help in validation of diagnostic application of salivary-based testing.

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