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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 232-236

Prevalence of dental caries among 12-15 years old school children of government and private schools in Agra City


1 Department of Public Health Dentistry, R. R. Dental College and Hospital, Udaipur, Rajasthan, India
2 Department of Public Health Dentistry, K D Dental College and Hospital, Mathura, Uttar Pradesh, India
3 Department of Periodontics and Community Dentistry, Dr. Z A Dental College, AMU, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh, India
4 Department of Public Health Dentistry, Maharana Pratap College of Dentistry and Research Centre, Gwalior, Madhya Pradesh, India

Date of Submission12-Feb-2020
Date of Decision04-Jun-2020
Date of Acceptance25-Aug-2020
Date of Web Publication13-Oct-2020

Correspondence Address:
Pramod Kumar Yadav
Department of Periodontics and Community Dentistry, Dr. Z A Dental College, Amu, Aligarh, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_23_20

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  Abstract 


Background: Oral health is an important component of general health, with dental caries affecting a person's ability to eat, speak, or socialize. Dental caries is one of the most prevalent diseases affecting human beings and persists till date as a challenge to the medical and dental profession in particular and the society in general. Aim: The study aims to assess the prevalence of dental caries among 12–15-years-old school-going children of government and private schools in Agra city, Uttar Pradesh, India. Materials and Methods: A crosssectional study was conducted among 12–15–years-old school-going children of government and private schools in Agra city, Uttar Pradesh, India. A total of 1600 school children were through a multistage random sampling procedure. The children were examined according to the World Health Organization criteria, 2013. Information regarding a patient's demographic profile was recorded using a self–administered questionnaire. Chi-square test was used to find the significance of study parameters. The level of significance (P value) was fixed at 0.05. Results: The present study reveals a prevalence of dental caries was almost of the same magnitude in the 12 and 13 years of age group, and it was found to be 28.6% and 28.9%, respectively among government and private school children. It was found that among 14 and 15 years of age groups, dental caries affected 22.9% and 19.6% of the study participants, respectively from both government and private school children. The results were found to be highly statistically significant between government and private school children regarding the number of carious teeth. Conclusion: The prevalence of dental caries was found to be the major public health problem among both the government and private school children of Agra city, which need immediate attention. Therefore, there is a need to develop preventive and promotional oral health strategies to combat this disease.

Keywords: Dental caries, prevalence, schoolchildren


How to cite this article:
Bansal A, Kaur N, Yadav PK, Sharma VK, Jain P, Agrawal G. Prevalence of dental caries among 12-15 years old school children of government and private schools in Agra City. Indian J Dent Sci 2020;12:232-6

How to cite this URL:
Bansal A, Kaur N, Yadav PK, Sharma VK, Jain P, Agrawal G. Prevalence of dental caries among 12-15 years old school children of government and private schools in Agra City. Indian J Dent Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Dec 3];12:232-6. Available from: http://www.ijds.in/text.asp?2020/12/4/232/298029




  Introduction Top


Oral diseases such as dental caries, periodontal diseases, and tooth loss. are major public health problems worldwide and poor oral health has a profound effect on general health and quality of life.[1],[2]

Dental caries is the most prevalent chronic infectious disease affecting human beings and persists till date as a challenge to the medical and dental profession in particular and the society in general.[3],[4] According to the World Health Organization (WHO) reports dental caries as pandemic disease and the prevalence of dental caries among school-aged children is 60% to 90%.[5]

Dental caries is an international public health challenge, especially among young children. It can affect either sex with all age groups with all socioeconomic conditions.[6] Tooth decay not only causes damage to the tooth but is also responsible for several morbid conditions of the oral cavity and other systems of the body.[7]

On the other hand, in many developing countries an increase in dental caries has resulted from unhealthy dietary habits, limited use of fluoride, and poor access to oral health services.[8]

Conventionaly, the prevalence of dental caries was high in most industrialized countries while low caries levels have been observed in developing countries. The urbanization and adoption of Western lifestyles into many developing countries in the absence of public prevention programs have also caused a sudden increase in dental caries.[9]

Children are a very important part of a country's demography and their health influences the future of the nation. The children suffering from poor oral health are twelve times more likely to have restricted activity days as compared to their healthy counterparts.10

Children are more susceptible to dental caries, their primary teeth exfoliated and permanent dentition erupts into the mouth, their oral immunity is still in the building phase, they face the transition of dietary habits which changes from home to school. The predisposing factors for causing dental caries are active at this stage. The infrequency of inappropriate eating practice and no proper guidance for oral hygiene increases the risk of dental caries.[11] High prevalence of dental caries results in the absenteeism of school hours and loss of working hours and economic loss for the parents.[12]

The schools remain an important setting, offering an efficient and effective way to reach children worldwide and through the families and community members.[13] At the age of 12 years, permanent teeth (except 3rd molars) would have erupted and by 15 years age, these teeth are exposed to the oral environment for almost 3 years.[14] According to the WHO-2013, the importance given to this age group is due to the fact that it is at this age that children leave primary school. Moreover, it is possible that at this age all the permanent teeth except third molars, have already erupted. Thus, the age of 12 was determined as the age of global monitoring of caries for international comparisons and monitoring of disease trends.[15] It is notable that the prevalence of dental caries among children is about 80% and adults are approximately 60% in India.[16]

Voluminous dental literature exists about caries levels in the Indian population.[17] Overall prevalence of dental caries among 12–15-year-old children range from 40% to 80% across various regions in India. The overall impression is that dental caries has increased in prevalence and severity over the past couple of decades.[18]

There has been no study conducted regarding the prevalence of dental caries in Agra city till now. Hence, the present study was undertaken to know the prevalence of dental caries among 12–15-years-old school children of government and private schools in Agra city, Uttar Pradesh, India.


  Materials and Methods Top


A cross–sectional epidemiological study was conducted was among school-going children aged 12–15 years in Agra city, Uttar Pradesh, India scheduled over a period of 3 months from July 2016 to September 2016. Official permission was obtained from the district education department Agra and ethical clearance was obtained from the institutional ethical clearance committee of K D Dental College and Hospital, Mathura. Before start of the study, informed consent was obtained from the principals of the respective schools as well as from parents of the study participants. A multistage random sampling procedure was used to select school children. At the first stage, the city was divided into five zones: central, North, South, East, and West. Then, in the second stage, the total number of schools in Agra city were listed out. During the third stage, to obtain the total sample size of 1600, 320 school children from each of the five zones were randomly selected out of which 160 school children were from government schools and 160 were from private schools. Selection of schools from each zone had been done using simple random sampling (lottery method). A pilot study was done to assess the feasibility of the study and to calculate the sample size. The sample size was estimated to be 1600 school children (826 governments and 774 privates).

Inclusion criteria

  • All the available participants who were in the age range of 12–15 years participants willing to participate in the survey.


Exclusion criteria

  • Those who were absent on the day of examination
  • Those who were handicapped.


Information on demographic details and oral hygiene practices was collected from the participants using a close-ended questionnaire. The structured questionnaire was prepared in English or Hindi for the ease and convenience of school children. Students were assured that the information they provided would remain confidential and thus were encouraged to be truthful in their responses. A reference number was given to each questionnaire. The questionnaire was consisted of two parts. The first part included general information regarding participant's demographic profile and oral hygiene practices, dietary habits, and dental visits. The second part of the questionnaire included clinical examination. Dental caries was recorded using the WHO criteria, 2013.

Children were examined by a single examiner who was trained to record the World Health Assessment form, 2013. After completion of the survey, oral health education on basic oral hygiene was given to all the school children with the help of charts and models in their respective classes.

The data collected were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS- PC version 21, statistical analysis software, IBM, Armonk, New York, United states) for the descriptive analysis and statistical tests of significance. The level of significance was set at P < 0.05. Chi-square test was used to find the significance of study parameters.


  Results Top


A total of 1600 school children were examined, 402 (48.7%) males and 424 (51.3%) females were from government schools and 396 (51.2%) males and 378 (48.8%) females were from private schools [Table 1].
Table 1: Distribution of study participants according to gender among government and private school children

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In government schools, 28.6% children were of 12 years age, 26.8% children were of 13 years age, 22.4% children were of 14 years age, and 22.2% children were of 15 years age group while in private schools, 28.4% children were of 12 years age, 31.2% children were of 13 years age, 23.4% children were of 14 years age, and 17% children were of 15 years age groups. The results were found to be statistically significant between government and private school children regarding the age group (P = 0.04) [Table 2].
Table 2: Distribution of study participants according to age group among government and private school children

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In government schools, 78.8% of children cleaned their teeth once in a day while in private schools, 57.1% of children cleaned their teeth once in a day. The results were found to be highly statistically significant between government and private school children regarding the frequency of teeth cleaning (P = 0.000) [Table 3].
Table 3: Distribution of study participants according to the frequency of teeth cleaning among government and private school children

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In government schools, 56.9% of participants cleaned their teeth with toothbrush and toothpaste, 21.7% of participants cleaned their teeth with a toothbrush and tooth powder, 17.1% participants cleaned their teeth with finger and tooth powder, and 4.4% of participants cleaned their teeth with neem stick. In private schools, 99.4% of participants cleaned their teeth with toothbrush and toothpaste, 0.3% of participants cleaned their teeth with toothbrush and tooth powder, and 0.4% of participants cleaned their teeth with finger and tooth powder. The results were found to be highly statistically significant between government and private school children regarding the material used for teeth cleaning (P = 0.000) [Table 4].
Table 4: Distribution of study participants according to the material used for teeth cleaning among government and private school children

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In government schools, the prevalence of dental caries was found to be 28.6%in 12 year age group, 26.8% in 13 year age group, 22.4% in 14 year age group, and 22.2% in 15 year age group. In private schools, the prevalence of dental caries was found to be 28.5% in 12 year age group, 31.1% in 13 year age group, 23.4% in 14 year age group, and 17% in 15 year age group [Table 5].
Table 5: Age-wise distribution of study participants according to the prevalence of dental caries among government and private school children

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Out of 100% participants, 54.4% participants were free from dental caries, 24.4% participants had one carious tooth, 16.8% participants had two carious teeth, 3.7% participants had three carious teeth, 0.6% participants had four carious teeth, and only 0.1% participant had five carious teeth. The results were found to be highly statistically significant between government and private school children regarding the number of carious teeth (P = 0.000) [Table 6].
Table 6: Distribution of study participants according to the number of carious teeth among government and private school children

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  Discussion Top


The present study provides information on the prevalence of dental caries among 12–15-years-old school children of government and private schools in Agra city, Uttar Pradesh, India. The present study was targeted at school-going children because of the ease of accessibility.

In the present study, out of 1600 school children were examined, 48.7% of males and 51.3% of females were from government schools, whereas 51.2% of males and 48.8% of females were from private schools. Similar results were seen in the study conducted by Ingle et al.,[3] in which out of 1400 school children were examined, 51.4% of males and 48.6% of females were from government schools, whereas 55% of males and 45% of females were from private schools.

The present study showed 28.6% children were of 12 years age, 26.8% children were of 13 years age, 22.4% children were of 14 years age, and 22.2% children were of 15 years age group in government schools while in private schools, 28.4% children were of 12 years age, 31.2% children were of 13 years age, 23.4% children were of 14 years age, and 17% children were of 15 years age groups. The results were found to be statistically significant between government and private school children regarding the age group. Similar results were seen in the study conducted by Ingle et al.,[3] in which 22% children were of 12 years age, 22% children were of 13 years age, 26% children were of 14 years age, and 30% children were of 15 years age group, respectively in government schools. In private schools, 29.8% of children were of 12 years age, 20% children were of 13 years age, 25% of children were of 14 years age, and 25.2% of children were of 15 years age group, respectively.

Most government school children 78.8% cleaned their teeth once in a day, whereas 57.1% of participants cleaned their teeth once in a day in private schools. The results were found to be highly statistically significant between government and private school children regarding the frequency of teeth cleaning. Similar results were seen in the studies conducted by Ingle et al.,[3] Shailee et al.,[12] and Kabasi et al.,[16] most of government school children 86.2%, 70.8%, and 77.7% cleaned their teeth once in a day while in private schools, 89.9%, 51%, and 73% participants cleaned their teeth once in a day.

In the present study, it was observed that most of the private school children, i.e., 99.4% cleaned their teeth with toothbrush and toothpaste, whereas in 56.9% cleaned their teeth with toothbrush and toothpaste in government schools. The results were found to be highly statistically significant. In previous studies done by Shailee et al.,[13] and Kabasi et al.,[18] Most of the private school children, i.e., 100% and 97.7%cleaned their teeth with a tooth brush. In government schools, 94% and 90.2% cleaned their teeth with toothbrush and toothpaste.

In the present study, it was observed that the prevalence of dental caries was higher at the age of 12 years (28.6%) in a government school, whereas the prevalence of dental caries was higher at the age of 13 years (31.1%) in private school.

In this present study, among total 1600 (100%) participants, 871 (54.4%) participants were free from dental caries, 391 (24.4%) participants had one carious tooth, 268 (16.8%) participants had two carious teeth, 59 (3.7%) participants had three carious teeth, 10 (0.6%) participants had four carious teeth, and only one (0.1%) participant had five carious teeth. No earlier studies have been carried out that show distribution of study participants according to the number of carious teeth.

The limitation of the present study could be self-reported information for the questionnaire and discrimination of socioeconomic status based on the children attending private or government schools. Further studies are required to correlate dental caries prevalence in the target population with a parent's literacy level and other sociobehavioral factors.


  Conclusion Top


From the present study, it is concluded that the prevalence of dental caries was almost of the same magnitude in 12 and 13 years age groups, and it was found to be 28.6% and 28.9% respectively among government and private school children. It was found that among 14 and 15 years age groups, dental caries affected 22.9% and 19.6% of the study participants respectively from both government and private school children. Furthermore, there was a large amount of untreated carious lesions among these age groups of the study. Dental caries were more in females (52.5%) as compared to males (47.5%) irrespective of the schools they studied. The results of this study indicated that lack of dental health awareness and poor oral hygiene measures seemed the main reasons for dental caries. Therefore, there is a need to develop preventive and promotional oral health strategies to combat this disease.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
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  [Table 1], [Table 2], [Table 3], [Table 4], [Table 5], [Table 6]



 

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