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Year : 2020  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 198-203

Association between periodontal disease and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A case–control study

1 Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, Sharda University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India
2 Department of Pulmonology, School of Medical Science and Research, Sharda University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh, India

Correspondence Address:
Radhika Gupta
Department of Periodontology, School of Dental Sciences, Sharda University, Greater Noida, Uttar Pradesh
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_89_20

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Background: It has been recognized that oral infections, especially periodontal diseases, may affect the course and pathogenesis of a number of systemic diseases. The present study is done with an aim to determine the association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and periodontal disease. Materials and Methods: The study included 130 individuals consisting of 65 patients (case group) having COPD and 65 individuals as controls. Individuals in the case group were well-functioning and ambulatory patients having COPD as determined by their history and by performing pulmonary function test, who were then graded into mild, moderate, severe, and very severe. Periodontal status was evaluated by the following indices: simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S), plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), pocket probing depth (PPD), and clinical attachment level (CAL). Results: Individuals in the case group had significantly higher OHI-S, PI, GI, PPD, and CAL (P < 0.0001) compared with the control group. A significant positive relationship was observed between COPD subgroup P values and PI, thus indicating a trend in which severity of lung obstruction increased as these periodontal indices worsened. Conclusion: The patients with COPD showed poor oral hygiene and higher prevalence of periodontal disease. The lack of awareness and negligence toward oral health care was noted, which increased as the severity of COPD increased. The dental community's awareness of poor health within this population should be elevated. Prevention and treatment of periodontal disease could be included in planned intervention campaigns designed to help patients with COPD.

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