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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 63-67

To evaluate the knowledge of dental implants and peri-implantitis among various medical professionals across himachal pradesh: A questionnaire-based prospective study


1 Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Pacific Dental College and Hospital, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasathan, India
2 Private Practitioner, Jammu, Jammu and Kashmir, India
3 Specialist Medical Officer Dental, Himachal Pradesh Health Services, Government of Himachal Pradesh, Sundernagar, Himachal Pradesh, India
4 Department of Public Health, Himachal Dental College, Sundernagar, Himachal Pradesh, India
5 Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Himachal Dental College, Sundernagar, Himachal Pradesh, India

Date of Submission23-Feb-2020
Date of Decision05-Mar-2020
Date of Acceptance14-Apr-2020
Date of Web Publication21-May-2020

Correspondence Address:
Ashish Bali
Department of Periodontology and Implantology, Pacific Dental College and Hospital, Debari, Udaipur, Rajasthan
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_28_20

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  Abstract 


Aim and Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of dental implants and peri-implantitis among various medical professionals across Himachal Pradesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted among 100 medical professions residing in Himachal Pradesh using a self-explanatory questionnaire. The survey consisted of 11 self-explanatory questionnaires. The nature and purpose of the survey was explained to the professionals. Results: The present study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of dental implants and peri-implantitis among 100 medical professionals. The results shows that although the medical practitioner do have some knowledge about dental implants, but still there is a scope of improvement about the knowledge of dental implants and peri-implant diseases. Conclusions: The results of this survey showed that majority of the medical professionals working in the state of Himachal Pradesh, were aware about dental implants as a treatment modality for the replacement of missing teeth. However, there is a deficit in the level of information regarding peri-implant diseases and the effect of systemic diseases and condition on dental implants, so further education is required.

Keywords: Dental implants, medical professionals, peri-implant mucositis, peri-implantitis


How to cite this article:
Bali A, Ahmed R, Pathania P, Singh A, Chauhan P, Singh Bawa SK. To evaluate the knowledge of dental implants and peri-implantitis among various medical professionals across himachal pradesh: A questionnaire-based prospective study. Indian J Dent Sci 2020;12:63-7

How to cite this URL:
Bali A, Ahmed R, Pathania P, Singh A, Chauhan P, Singh Bawa SK. To evaluate the knowledge of dental implants and peri-implantitis among various medical professionals across himachal pradesh: A questionnaire-based prospective study. Indian J Dent Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 May 24];12:63-7. Available from: http://www.ijds.in/text.asp?2020/12/2/63/284668




  Introduction Top


The aim of modern dentistry is to restore the patient to normal function, aesthetics, speech and health. Dental Implants are unique because they are able to achieve these ideal goals.[1] Dental implants have revolutionized the treatment of edentulous patients for the last two decades demonstrating high success and survival rates. However, clinicians are challenged with biological complications of peri-implant tissues; namely, peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis.[2] Peri-implant mucositis is a reversible inflammatory process causing redness and swelling localized to the soft tissue around implants without signs of loss of supporting bone following initial bone remodeling during healing.[3] Peri-implantitis is an inflammatory process which includes both soft tissue inflammation and progressive loss of supporting bone beyond biological bone remodeling of the functioning implant, possibly leading to implant loss. Peri-implant mucositis and peri-implantitis are the inflammatory conditions that are associated with osseointegrated implants, but there is a limited information available for the prevalence and treatment of peri-implant diseases. If these conditions or diseases are not diagnosed at the earlier stages, it will ultimately lead to more destruction of the bone and further loss of implant i.e implant failure occurs.[4]

Public evaluation of implants may furthermore depend on sources from where persons obtain information. Mass media emphasizing dramatic failures and malpractice cases, may convey different impressions on oral implant treatment, compared to information from direct communication with persons that have undergone treatment or form direct communication with periodontist. Public evaluation of implant treatment may to some extent reflect the total impact of information (Bra¨nnstro¨m & Lindblad 1994). If obvious bias in public information exists, there may be need for increased efforts to balance information toward the general public,[5] and to increase the information regarding peri-implant diseases.

Aim and objective

The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge of dental implants and peri-implantitis among various medical professionals across Himachal Pradesh.


  Materials and Methods Top


2.1. Study design and population

A questionnaire-based prospective study was conducted among 100 medical professions residing in the different parts of Himachal Pradesh, who are willing to participate in the study, using a self-explanatory questionnaire. The survey consisted of 11 self-explanatory questionnaire. The nature and purpose of the survey was explained to the professionals.

2.2. Pretesting of questionnaire

A self-administered structured questionnaire was developed and tested among a convenience sample of 10 dental professionals, who were interviewed to gain feedback on the overall acceptability of the questionnaire in terms of length and language clarity. Based on their feedback, the questionnaire did not require any corrections. Cronbach coefficient was found to be 0.80, which showed an internal reliability of the questionnaire. Mean Content Validity Ratio (CVR) was calculated as 0.87 based on the opinions expressed by a panel of five academicians.

2.3. Questionnaire

The objective of this study was to evaluate the Knowledge of Dental Implants and Peri-implantitis among various medical professionals across Himachal.

  • Is smoking a risk factor for peri-implantitis
  • Do you think insurance coverage is needed in our country for dental implants
  • Do you know which part of the mouth is the implant actually placed
  • Do you think dental implants can be placed in any person with missing a teeth?
  • What do you understand by peri-implantitis?
  • Do you think the cost of the dental implant is cheaper if done abroad?
  • Do you think the cost of the dental implant treatment is same everywhere in the country?
  • Have you heard about peri-mucositis?
  • Which is reversible peri-implantitis or peri-mucositis?
  • Can dental implants be placed in post-menopausal patients?
  • Can dental implants be placed in diabetic patients?


2.4. Inclusion criteria

All the registered medical professionals residing or practicing in Himachal, and who were willing to participate in the survey.

2.5. Exclusion criteria

The medical professionals who were not willing to participate and left the survey in the middle.

2.6. Methodology

Investigators collected the list of 100 medical practitioners working in different parts of Himachal Pradesh, willing to participate in the study. The survey consisted of 11 self-explanatory questionnaire. The nature and purpose of the survey was explained to the professionals.

Administration of the survey and collection of completed questionnaires was carried out over a period of two months (from December 2019 to January 2020).

2.7. Statistical analysis

All the data was entered and tabulated into M. S Excel Spreadsheet (Version 2015). The data was analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Science software (SPSS, Version 20.0, IBM, USA). Data were collected in an Excel file and analyzed. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 17 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL, USA).

Descriptive statistics and frequency distributions were performed.

The statistical significance was set at level of 5% (P<0.05) and the power sample was examined using the chi-square likelihood-ratio.

The responses were compiled and statistical analysis was performed.


  Results Top



  Discussion Top


The present study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge of dental implants and peri- implantitis among 100 medical professionals. About 53% of the professionals found that smoking is a risk factor for peri-implantitis (Sgolastra F et al),[4] whereas 47% didn't found it as a risk factor [Figure 1]. 67% found that insurance coverage is needed in our country for dental implant treatment (Chowdhary R et al.),[5] whereas 33% didn't found it need in our country [Figure 2]. When asked about which part of the mouth implants are actually placed, 48% voted for jaw bone, 22% for the gums, 25% for the adjacent teeth and 5% didn't knew about where the implants are placed [Figure 3]. When asked for whether dental implants can be placed in any person with a missing teeth, 38% of the professionals agreed with the question asked whereas 62% said that implants can't be placed in any person [Figure 4]. The professionals then were asked about whether they are aware of the meaning of peri-implantitis, 36% said that it was the swelling of gums around the implants (Triplett RG et al.),[6] 28% opted that it was loosening of the implant (Theoharidou A et al.),[7] 28% said that it means both i.e swelling of gums around implant and loosening of the same, 8% didn't know the meaning of peri- implantitis [Figure 5]. The medical professionals were then asked whether the treatment if done in abroad is cheaper, 65% said it is not cheaper in abroad, whereas 35% found it cheaper in abroad [Figure 6]. The next question the professionals were subjected to about whether the cost of dental implant (Satpathy A et al.)[8] is same everywhere in the country, 72% said that it was not same whereas, 28% said it was the same everywhere [Figure 7]. The next question asked was about the term peri-mucositis (Heitz-Mayfield LJ),[9] (Sakakura CE et al.),[10] whether had they heard the term or not, only 38% of them had heard about the term, whereas 62% didn't knew about the term [Figure 8]. When asked about the reversibility of the condition among peri-implantitis (Satpathy A et al.)[8] and peri-mucositis (Jepsen S et al.),[11] 12.1% voted for peri-implantitis, 27.3% voted for peri-mucositis (Muthukuru M et al),[12] 36.4% voted for both and 24.2% had no idea about the reversibility [Figure 9]. 61.6% of the professionals found that the implants can be placed in post- menopausal patients (Koka S et al.),[13] whereas 38.4% found that the implants can't be placed (Moy PK et al.)[14] [Figure 10]. 49.5% of the medical professionals voted that the dental implants can't be placed (de Oliveira-Neto OB et al)[15] in diabetics, whereas 50.5% said that it can be placed (Balshi TJ et al.)[16] [Figure 11].
Figure 1: Is smoking a risk factor for peri-implantitis?

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Figure 2: Do you think insurance coverage is needed in our country for dental implant treatment?

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Figure 3: Do you know which part of the mouth is the implant actually placed

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Figure 4: Do you think dental implants can be placed in any person with missing teeth

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Figure 5: What do you understand by peri-implantitis?

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Figure 6: Do you think the cost of the dental implant is cheaper if done abroad?

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Figure 7: Do you think the cost of the dental implant treatment is same everywhere in the country?

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Figure 8: Have you heard about peri-mucositis?

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Figure 9: Which is reversible peri-implantitis or peri-mucositis?

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Figure 10: Can dental implants be placed in post-menopausal patients?

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Figure 11: Can dental implants be placed in diabetic patients?

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  Conclusions Top


The results show that although the medical practitioner does have some knowledge about dental implants, but still there is a scope of improvement about the knowledge of peri-implant diseases.

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank all the medical practitioner who took part in this study and a special thanks to Dr. Prashant Pathania Medical Officer Dental who actually helped us in circulating the questionnaire for survey.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Berge TI. Public awareness, information sources and evaluation of oral implant treatment in Norway. Clinical Oral Implants Research 2000;11:401-8.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Papathanasiou E, Finkelman M, Hanley J, Parashis AO. Prevalence, Etiology And Treatment Of Peri-Implant Mucositis And Peri-Implantitis: A Survey of Periodontists In The United States. Journal of Periodontology 2016;87:493-501.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Khosya B, Devaraj CG. Awareness Of Dental Implants As A Treatment Modality Among People Visiting Mahatma Gandhi Dental College & Hospital, Jaipur. National Journal of Medical Research 2015;1:61-3.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Sgolastra F, Petrucci A, Severino M, Gatto R, Monaco A. Smoking and the risk of peri-implantitis. A systematic review and meta-analysis. Clinical Oral Implants Research 2015;26:e62-7.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Chowdhary R, Mankani N, Chandraker NK. Awareness of dental implants as a treatment choice in urban Indian populations. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 2010;1:25.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Triplett RG, Andrews JA, Hallmon WW. Management of peri-implantitis. Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Clinics 2003;15:129-38.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
Theoharidou A, Petridis HP, Tzannas K, Garefis P. Abutment screw loosening in single-implant restorations: A systematic review. International Journal Oral & Maxillofacial Implants 2008;23:681-90.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Satpathy A, Porwal A, Bhattacharya A, Sahu PK. Patient awareness, acceptance and perceived cost of dental Implants as a treatment modality for replacement of missing teeth: A survey in Bhubaneswar and Cuttack. Int J Public Health Dent 2011;2:1-7.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Heitz-Mayfield LJ, Salvi GE. Peri-implant mucositis. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2018;45:S237-45.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Sakakura CE, Morais JA, Loffredo LC, Scaf G. A survey of radiographic prescription in dental implant assessment. Dentomaxillofacial Radiology 2003;32:397-400.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Jepsen S, Berglundh T, Genco R, Aass AM, Demirel K, Derks J, et al. Primary prevention of peri-implantitis: Managing peri-implant mucositis. Journal of Clinical Periodontology 2015;42:S152-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Muthukuru M, Zainvi A, Esplugues EO, Flemmig TF. Non-surgical therapy for the management of peri-implantitis: A systematic review. Clinical Oral Implants Research 2012;23:77-83.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Koka S, Babu NM, Norell A. Survival of dental implants in post-menopausal bisphosphonate users. Journal of Prosthodontic Research. 2010;54:108-11.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
Moy PK, Medina D, Shetty V, Aghaloo TL. Dental implant failure rates and associated risk factors. International Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Implants 2005;1:20.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
de Oliveira-Neto OB, Santos IO, Barbosa FT, de Sousa-Rodrigues CF, de Lima FJ. Quality assessment of systematic reviews regarding dental implant placement on diabetic patients: An overview of systematic reviews. Medicina Oral, Patologia Oral y Cirugia Bucal 2019;24:e483.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
Balshi TJ, Wolfinger GJ. Dental implants in the diabetic patient: A retrospective study. Implant Dent 1999;8:355-9.  Back to cited text no. 16
    


    Figures

  [Figure 1], [Figure 2], [Figure 3], [Figure 4], [Figure 5], [Figure 6], [Figure 7], [Figure 8], [Figure 9], [Figure 10], [Figure 11]



 

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