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 Table of Contents  
REVIEW ARTICLE
Year : 2020  |  Volume : 12  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 53-55

XP endo® file: An update review


Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India

Date of Web Publication27-Jan-2020

Correspondence Address:
Nidhi Singh
Department of Conservative Dentistry and Endodontics, Faculty of Dental Sciences, IMS, BHU, Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_74_19

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  Abstract 


Clinical research has still focus on three-dimensional (3D) cleaning, shaping, and obturation of the oval root canal by improving irrigation, creating new alloys for instruments, and creating new sealers. This article only deals the MaxWire® technology instruments XP Endo® Shaper, Finisher, and XP Endo® Retreatment file and analyzes how they are effective in 3D cleaning and shaping, in biofilm removal, triple antibiotic paste removal, and also for debris and smear layer removal.

Keywords: MaxWire, oval canal, XP Endo® file


How to cite this article:
Baranwal HC, Singh N, Kumari A. XP endo® file: An update review. Indian J Dent Sci 2020;12:53-5

How to cite this URL:
Baranwal HC, Singh N, Kumari A. XP endo® file: An update review. Indian J Dent Sci [serial online] 2020 [cited 2020 Feb 25];12:53-5. Available from: http://www.ijds.in/text.asp?2020/12/1/53/276888




  Introduction Top


The primary purpose of any endodontic treatment is to shape the root canal with its original anatomy and to eliminate microorganisms such as in the case of infected root canals and remaining debris and smear layer which harbor microorganisms and their by-products.[1] Bacteria remaining in the root dentine or in the periradicular tissues should be eliminated in order to improve the prognosis, and this should be achieved without damaging the tissues. Despite different instrumental methods, it has been shown that only 30%–40% area of root canal surfaces are clean and the remaining area are untouched.[2],[3] It mostly happens due to smear layer which obstructs the penetration of intracanal disinfectants[4] and sealers into the dentinal tubules, which may lead to failure of sealing the canals.[5],[6] This smear layer forms on the dentinal walls[7],[8] during the shaping of root canals. Several irrigation solutions have been introduced to decrease the residual debris, necrotic tissues, bacteria, and the smear layer, which are formed by mechanical instrumentation in the root canal system[4],[9] such as sodium hypochlorite, deproteinizing agents, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid, calcium-chelating agents, conventional syringe irrigation method, and endoactivator system. All these methods are found insufficient for complete cleaning of the complex anatomy of the root canal system such as isthmus, fins, and lateral and accessory canals.[10]

Hence, this article discusses the newer generation file (XP Endo®) from FKG, Dentaire SA, La ChauxdeFonds, Switzerland, which is expanding in nature, due to MaxWire technology. XP Endo Shaper® (XPES) and Finisher files are more effective in debris and smear layer removal.[11] They facilitate irrigation, and are effective in biofilm removal from the main canal as well as from the deep, narrow apical groove.[12] In all rotary instruments, the most worrying issue is the risk of fracture to which they are subjected. XP Endo Shaper® (XPES) and XP-Endo-Finisher ™ (XPEF) files is continuous rotation file. Both of them are able to perform at variations in temperature and to take on a predetermined shape inside the root canal, at body temperature and it also have high flexibility.[13],[14]


  Discussion Top


A new expandable, newer generation XPES and Finisher (FKG Dentaire SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) has been recently introduced. New nickel–titanium (Ni-Ti) forms have been developed by heating the alloy during the process of manufacturing, which results in combination of heat treatment and hardening, and this increases the flexibility of Ni-Ti instruments.[15] It is manufactured for shaping the three-dimensional (3D) instrumentation irregularities of root canals.[16] XPES uses a rotary Ni-Ti snake-shaped instrument. This file has an initial taper of 0.01 in its M phase when it is cool. Upon exposure to body temperature (35°C), the taper changes to 0.04 according to the molecular memory of Austenitic phase. XP achieves a final minimum canal preparation of 30/0.04 when used alone.

According to the manufacturer, XP applies minimal stress to dentin walls, thereby minimizing the risk of microcracks in the dentin. XP can adapt easily to canal irregularities and has excellent resistance to cyclic fatigue.[16]

In 2015, FKG manufactured an equally singular file, the XP Endo Finisher® (XPEF), which was developed with the purpose of refining the canal in order to increase the effect of irrigants and improve smear layer removal from the walls. The instrument is made up of an alloy patented by FKG called MaxWire (Martensite-Austenite Electropolish -FleX, FKG Dentaire). According to the manufacturer, the file is straight in M phase when cooled, and it changes into A phase when exposed to body temperature where it will have its unique spoon shape with a length of 10 mm from the tip and a depth of 1.5 mm because of its molecular memory.[14],[17]

XP Endo Finisher

XPEF file was introduced by FKG in 2015. It is suggested to be used at 800 rpm and 1.0 Newton Torque with irrigating solution after root canal preparation to size #25 or longer. The instrument's diameter is ISO #0.25 and its taper is equal to 0.

Bao et al. in 2017[12] concluded that XPEF file helps remove biofilm from the main canal as well as from the deep, narrow apical groove. Keskin et al. evaluated the efficacy of XPEF file in removing calcium hydroxide from simulated internal resorption cavity in 2017.[18] Many studies compared the XPEF file-cleansing capabilities to Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation. Vibringe syringe (Vibringe B. V. Corp, Amsterdam, Netherlands), and Photon-Initiated Photoacoustic Streaming (PIPS), both in the removal of calcium hydroxide and antibiotic dressing pastes[19],[20],[21],[22],[23],[24] and also in the removal of biofilm from the canals.[11],[12],[25],[26],[27] It has proven to be most effective almost in all situations. In 2016, Elnaghy et al. conducted a comparative study on the effectiveness of XPEF file. They found that XPEF file is similarly effective in the removal of smear layer and debris when compared to Endo Activator in curved root canal.[11] Azim et al.[26] and Alves et al.[25] in 2016 performed a comparative analysis between XPEF file and the latest generation Ni-Ti instruments on the ability to disrupt biofilm and confirmed that the latter still left a portion of unremoved bacteria in statistically significant values. XP Endo Finisher file (XPEF) can be used along with root canal preparation with standard Ni-Ti files after XPES. Final cleansing maneuvers are done with the XPEF file.[28]

XP Endo Shaper

XPES file was introduced by FKG in 2016 for 3D canal shaping. This instrument is also manufactured in MaxWire alloy; it has a 4% taper and an ISO #30 apex. The anatomy of the instrument is unusual, classic conical instrument that impresses its shape in canal, but it has a waves throughout its body which, during expansive rotation instrument impact the canal surface in its best way (Adaptive Core Technology).

The tip of XPES also has a booster tip. It has six cutting blades for optimum file guidance in the canal; the minimum diameter of the tip is #0.15 with the maximum diameter of #0.30. If used at body temperature, the instrument returns to shape outlined for austenite which it is subjected (800 rpm) and its excellent flexibility makes it possible to cover taper up to 8% and canal diameter up to #0.90. The taper is 1%. This file has M phase below 35°C and change to austenitic at above 35°C along with taper of 0.02–0.08 and tip size is #30–#90. It works with a minimum torque of 1 Nw and hence, the risk of creating a dentin crack is minimized.

Because of the own nature of the file, XPES is rather delicate in torsional tests, when compared to FlexMaster® (VDW GmbH, Munich, Germany), ProFile Vortex Blue Dentsply Tulsa Dental Passive Ultrasonic Irrigation (PUI), and True Shape (Dentsply-Tulsa);[29] it does not work to engage the wall of the canal. Hence, it does not need a torsional resistance.

XP Endo Finisher-R

XPEF-R® File was introduced in 2017, FKG completes the range of these instruments with one dedicated to retreatment: the XP-Endo Finisher-RTM (XPEF-R).. The XPEF-R has stronger core than XPEF and a diameter of ISO #0.30. The quality of cleaning and removing gutta-percha is superior.[30] In 2019, Taxiarchis G. Kontogiannis et al. concluded that XPEF-R file significantly improves the removal of AH Plus sealer.


  Conclusions Top


Clinical experience and research shows that yet there is no perfect method to accomplish an endodontic treatment and also there is no universal instrument to make it possible to clean the whole canal. However, recent technology using XP-Endo system has certainly allowed us to move forward in order to reduce the risks of failure in endodontic treatment and increase the healing percentage. Further studies are needed to confirm the efficacy of this new file system.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.



 
  References Top

1.
Rödig T, Döllmann S, Konietschke F, Drebenstedt S, Hülsmann M. Effectiveness of different irrigant agitation techniques on debris and smear layer removal in curved root canals: A scanning electron microscopy study. J Endod 2010;36:1983-7.  Back to cited text no. 1
    
2.
Paqué F, Boessler C, Zehnder M. Accumulated hard tissue debris levels in mesial roots of mandibular molars after sequential irrigation steps. Int Endod J 2011;44:148-53.  Back to cited text no. 2
    
3.
Paqué F, Balmer M, Attin T, Peters OA. Preparation of oval-shaped root canals in mandibular molars using nickel-titanium rotary instruments: A micro-computed tomography study. J Endod 2010;36:703-7.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Orstavik D, Haapasalo M. Disinfection by endodontic irrigants and dressings of experimentally infected dentinal tubules. Endod Dent Traumatol 1990;6:142-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Kennedy WA, Walker WA 3rd, Gough RW. Smear layer removal effects on apical leakage. J Endod 1986;12:21-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Saunders WP, Saunders EM. The effect of smear layer upon the coronal leakage of gutta-percha fillings and a glass ionomer sealer. Int Endod J 1992;25:245-9.  Back to cited text no. 6
    
7.
McComb D, Smith DC. A preliminary scanning electron microscopic study of root canals after endodontic procedures. J Endod 1975;1:238-42.  Back to cited text no. 7
    
8.
Byström A, Sundqvist G. Bacteriologic evaluation of the efficacy of mechanical root canal instrumentation in endodontic therapy. Scand J Dent Res 1981;89:321-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
    
9.
Zehnder M. Root canal irrigants. J Endod 2006;32:389-98.  Back to cited text no. 9
    
10.
Mancini M, Cerroni L, Iorio L, Armellin E, Conte G, Cianconi L. Smear layer removal and canal cleanliness using different irrigation systems (EndoActivator, EndoVac, and passive ultrasonic irrigation): Field emission scanning electron microscopic evaluation in anin vitro study. J Endod 2013;39:1456-60.  Back to cited text no. 10
    
11.
Elnaghy AM, Mandorah A, Elsaka SE. Effectiveness of XP-endo finisher, EndoActivator, and file agitation on debris and smear layer removal in curved root canals: A comparative study. Odontology 2017;105:178-83.  Back to cited text no. 11
    
12.
Bao P, Shen Y, Lin J, Haapasalo M.In vitro efficacy of XP-endo finisher with 2 different protocols on biofilm removal from apical root canals. J Endod 2017;43:321-5.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Trope M, Debelian G. XP-3D Finisher TM file – The next step in restorative endodontics. Endod Pract US 2015;8:22-4.  Back to cited text no. 13
    
14.
FKG Dentaire SA the XP-endo Finisher file brochure. Available from: http://www.fkg.ch/products/endodontics/final-preparation/xp-endo-finisher. [Last accessed on 2016 Dec 01].  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Versiani M, Souza E, De-Deus G. Critical appraisal of studies on dentinal radicular microcracks in endodontics: Methodological issues, contemporary concepts, and future perspectives. Endod Topics 2015;33:87-156.  Back to cited text no. 15
    
16.
FKG XP Endo Shaper. Available from: http://www.fkg.ch/sites/default/files/201607_ fkg_xps_brochure_en_web.pdf. [Last accessed on 2016 Oct 25].  Back to cited text no. 16
    
17.
Trope M, Debelian G. XP-3D Finisher file-the next step in restorative endodontics. Endod Pract US 2015;8:22-4.  Back to cited text no. 17
    
18.
Keskin C, Sariyilmaz E, Sariyilmaz Ö. Efficacy of XP-Endo finisher file in removing calcium hydroxide from simulated internal resorption cavity. J Endod 2017;43:126-30.  Back to cited text no. 18
    
19.
Gokturk H, Ozkocak I, Buyukgebiz F, Demir O. Anin vitro evaluation of various irrigation techniques for the removal of double antibiotic paste from root canal surfaces. J Appl Oral Sci 2016;24:568-74.  Back to cited text no. 19
    
20.
Gokturk H, Ozkocak I, Buyukgebiz F, Demir O. Effectiveness of various irrigation protocols for the removal of calcium hydroxide from artificial standardized grooves. J Appl Oral Sci 2017;25:290-8.  Back to cited text no. 20
    
21.
Kfir A, Blau-Venezia N, Goldberger T, Abramovitz I, Wigler R. Efficacy of self-adjusting file, XP-Endo finisher and passive ultrasonic irrigation on the removal of calcium hydroxide paste from an artificial standardized groove. Aust Endod J 2018;44:26-31.  Back to cited text no. 21
    
22.
Uygun AD, Gündoǧdu EC, Arslan H, Ersoy İ. Efficacy of XP-Endo finisher and TRUShape 3D conforming file compared to conventional and ultrasonic irrigation in removing calcium hydroxide. Aust Endod J 2017;43:89-93.  Back to cited text no. 22
    
23.
Wigler R, Dvir R, Weisman A, Matalon S, Kfir A. Efficacy of XP-endo finisher files in the removal of calcium hydroxide paste from artificial standardized grooves in the apical third of oval root canals. Int Endod J 2017;50:700-5.  Back to cited text no. 23
    
24.
Turkaydin D, Demir E, Basturk FB, Sazak Övecoglu H. Efficacy of XP-Endo finisher in the removal of triple antibiotic paste from immature root canals. J Endod 2017;43:1528-31.  Back to cited text no. 24
    
25.
Alves FR, Andrade-Junior CV, Marceliano-Alves MF, Pérez AR, Rôças IN, Versiani MA, et al. Adjunctive steps for disinfection of the mandibular molar root canal system: A correlative bacteriologic, micro-computed tomography, and cryopulverization approach. J Endod 2016;42:1667-72.  Back to cited text no. 25
    
26.
Azim AA, Aksel H, Zhuang T, Mashtare T, Babu JP, Huang GT. Efficacy of 4 irrigation protocols in killing bacteria colonized in dentinal tubules examined by a novel confocal laser scanning. Microscope analysis. J Endod 2016;42:928-34.  Back to cited text no. 26
    
27.
Leoni GB, Versiani MA, Silva-Sousa YT, Bruniera JF, Pécora JD, Sousa-Neto MD. Ex vivo evaluation of four final irrigation protocols on the removal of hard-tissue debris from the mesial root canal system of mandibular first molars. Int Endod J 2017;50:398-406.  Back to cited text no. 27
    
28.
Nasseh AA. Anatomical shaping with 3-D shaper and finisher. Endod Pract US 2017;10:30-2.  Back to cited text no. 28
    
29.
Elnaghy AM, Elsaka SE. Torsional resistance of XP-Endo shaper at body temperature compared with several nickel-titanium rotary instruments. Int Endod J 2018;51:572-6.  Back to cited text no. 29
    
30.
Silva EJ, Belladonna FG, Zuolo AS, Rodrigues E, Ehrhardt IC, Souza EM, et al. Effectiveness of XP-endo finisher and XP-endo finisher R in removing root filling remnants: A micro-CT study. Int Endod J 2018;51:86-91.  Back to cited text no. 30
    




 

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