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Year : 2019  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 103-107

A phase contrast cytomorphometric study of oral exfoliated cells in diabetes mellitus patients - An original study

Department of Oral Pathology, Malabar Dental College and Research Centre, Malappuram, Kerala, India

Correspondence Address:
S Akhil
Department of Oral Pathology, Malabar Dental College and Research Centre, Manoor Chekanoor Road, Mudur, Edappal, Malappuram - 679 578, Kerala
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_10_19

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Background of Study: Diabetes is the most common endocrine-metabolic disease affecting worldwide. Diagnosis of type 2 diabetes with the help of oral exfoliative cytology is a simple, noninvasive technique. Evaluation of cytomorphometric changes in exfoliated buccal cells in diabetes can help in the early detection and examination of diabetes. Aim: The aim is to study and compare the cytomorphometric features of buccal mucosal cells of normal individuals and type 2 diabetes patients and to evaluate the role of phase-contrast microscopy for visualizing cytomorphological changes in unstained smears. Materials and Methods: Fifty known type 2 diabetic patients and fifty healthy individuals were taken as study group and control group, respectively. Smears were prepared from the buccal mucosa of both study and control groups. Fixed, unstained smears were viewed under phase-contrast microscope, and cytomorphometric analysis was done using image analysis software for evaluating nuclear area (NA), cytoplasmic area (CyA), and nuclear/cytoplasmic ratio. Results: A statistically significant increase in NA(P = 0.000), CyA (P = 0.000), and N/Cy ratio (P = 0.000) was obtained from the smears of the study group when compared with the control group. Conclusions: Cytomorphometric analysis of exfoliated cells can aid in predicting systemic disease such as type 2 diabetes. With the use of phase-contrast microscope, the cellular details can be easily and quickly evaluated and it is a cost-effective method in cytomorphometric studies.

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