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 Table of Contents  
ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2017  |  Volume : 9  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 215-219

A comparative evaluation of awareness regarding periodontal health and oral hygiene practices among dental and medical undergraduate students in Beed District of Maharashtra


Department of Periodontology, Aditya Dental College, Beed, Maharashtra, India

Date of Web Publication1-Dec-2017

Correspondence Address:
Mangesh Ganesh Andhare
Department of Periodontology, Aditya Dental College, Beed, Maharashtra
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/IJDS.IJDS_87_16

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  Abstract 

Background: Dental and medical students are the healthcare takers of the general population. They play an important role in oral health care and its promotion in the society. Hence, their self-awareness regarding periodontal health and oral hygiene practices is mandatory. Aim: This study aims to evaluate awareness regarding periodontal health and oral hygiene practices among dental and medical undergraduate students. Materials and Methods: A total of 200 participants, out of which 100 medical and 100 dental undergraduate students were selected for this study. Structured questionnaires regarding teeth cleaning habit, use of tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, perception of halitosis, and treatment taken for halitosis were prepared and distributed to collect information regarding awareness of periodontal health and oral hygiene. The data were subjected to statistical analyses. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square test was applied for comparison among dental and medical undergraduate students. P value was considered statistically significant at P < 0.005 level. Results: Strongly significant differences were observed among the dental and medical students in brushing teeth twice daily, routine dental visit for oral hygiene maintenance, self-perception for halitosis, and treatment taken for halitosis (P < 0.005). Conclusion: Both the medical as well as dental professional students must be encouraged to be a good role model in promoting oral health education for their families, friends, patients, and ultimately for the society.

Keywords: Halitosis, oral health education, oral hygiene, periodontal health, tooth brushing


How to cite this article:
Andhare MG, Dhonge RP, Dhuldhwaj RM, Dede RA, N. Sayyad IF. A comparative evaluation of awareness regarding periodontal health and oral hygiene practices among dental and medical undergraduate students in Beed District of Maharashtra. Indian J Dent Sci 2017;9:215-9

How to cite this URL:
Andhare MG, Dhonge RP, Dhuldhwaj RM, Dede RA, N. Sayyad IF. A comparative evaluation of awareness regarding periodontal health and oral hygiene practices among dental and medical undergraduate students in Beed District of Maharashtra. Indian J Dent Sci [serial online] 2017 [cited 2017 Dec 17];9:215-9. Available from: http://www.ijds.in/text.asp?2017/9/4/215/219634


  Introduction Top


Oral and periodontal diseases adversely affect the interpersonal relationship, concentration and productivity by interaction between general and oral health. Prevention of oral diseases can be achieved by proper tooth brushing, use of interdental aids, flossing, proper dietary practice, and regular visit to dentist.[1] Dental health is highly individual concept which is affected by individual's socioeconomical status and culture.[2] Oral self-care practices proved to be an effective preventive measure for maintaining good oral health as a part of general health.[1],[3]

The primary concern of dental professionals and oral health educators is to introduce a positive oral health knowledge and behavior in the society.[3] Medical health professionals deal with the general health of the population and the treatment of different systemic diseases and conditions. Recently, researchers have found that there may be an associative link between systemic diseases and chronic periodontitis.

Periodontal disease can produce disorders in systemic health by changing the blood chemistry with rise in inflammatory mediators, acute reactive proteins and lipids in the serum.[4],[5] Hence, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the awareness of dental and medical undergraduate students regarding their oral and periodontal health problems.


  Materials And Methods Top


A total of 200 participants, out of which 100 dental and 100 medical undergraduate students were selected for this study. The ethical clearance was obtained from the Institutional Ethical Committee. The informed consent was obtained from the patients who participated in the study. Study conducted at Dental and Medical Colleges separately between January and February 2017 is an prospective study.

Inclusion criteria

  • Dental and medical student between age group of 18 and 21
  • Only 1st year students of both faculties
  • Systemically healthy participants.


Exclusion criteria

  • Postgraduate students
  • Age more than 21 years.


Selection bias was avoided by increasing number of volunteers, and from which, 100 dental and 100 medical undergraduates were selected.

Structured questionnaire were prepared based on the modification of Hiroshima university dental behavioral inventor (HU-DBI). It included awareness questions regarding the use of brushing the teeth, tongue cleaning, perception of halitosis and treatment taken for halitosis. This questionnaire was prepare and distributed to collect the information regarding awareness of periodontal health and oral hygiene. Participation was voluntary, and all the participants were queried anonymously. The questionnaires were collected in person immediately after completion. Then, the data were collected, tabulated, and subjected to statistical analysis [Table 1].
Table 1: List of questionnaires

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Statistical analysis

Statistical package for social science version 17 was utilized for statistical analysis [SPSS, Inc., Chicago, Illinois, USA]. The Chi-square test was performed for comparison of responses obtained from males and females. The level of statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.


  Results Top


A total of 200 participants, out of which 100 medical and 100 dental undergraduate students were selected for this study. The study population included 51 (25.5%) males and 151 (74.5%) female undergraduates (n = 200) and mean age of 19 years.

The majority (n = 185, 92.4%) of the participants felt that oral hygiene is mandatory for overall health of the body. However, there was no statistical significance in this perception among dental and medical undergraduates [Table 2].
Table 2: Responses to all questionnaires

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The use of toothpaste and toothbrush (n = 200, 87%) was reported to be the most common cleaning aid for oral prophylaxis among study population. There was a statistical significant difference with regard to the use of cleaning aids in dental undergraduates (96%) than medical undergraduates [Table 2].

Both dental and medical undergraduate students reported to clean their teeth twice daily in the morning and evening (n = 112, 56%). Dental undergraduates (69%) showed statistically significant differences than medical undergraduates (43%). There was a significant difference between dental (63%) and medical (47%) undergraduates with respect to the duration of cleaning teeth with most of them being clean their teeth for 3–5 min [Table 2].

Most of the participants change their toothbrush once in 3 months (n = 84, 42%). There was statistically significant difference reported among the dental (52%) and the medical undergraduates (32%). The awareness regarding cleaning of tongue was found to be more with dental undergraduate (97%) than medical undergraduate students (75 %) [Table 2].

The use of interdental aids was significantly higher in dental undergraduates (n = 21, 41%) than medical undergraduates (n = 9, 6%). The uses of various interdental aids among males and females were found to be statistically nonsignificant [Table 2].

The dental undergraduates are aware about the presence of bleeding gum as a periodontal problem (n = 81) compared with medical undergraduates (n = 63) [Table 2].

Most of the participants (n = 87, 43.5%) avoided the dental examination for oral hygiene as they take treatment only whenever problem exists [Table 2].

The majority of the dental and medical undergraduates are not aware about their self-perception for halitosis, regular visit to dentist, and treatment taken for halitosis in both genders [Table 2].


  Discussion Top


Health behaviors in general and oral health in particular are complex phenomenon;[6] due to oral health education, dental attitude becomes more positive and dental behavior will improve.[7]

There is a positive link between dental education experiences, oral health attitudes, behavior, and improvement of personal oral health of dental students.[8] Oral health knowledge is considered to be an essential prerequisite for health-related behavior.[9] The present study shows 63% dental students brushed twice daily, which in accordance with study of Neeraja et al. in 2011,[10] and Rahman and Kawas in 2013.[11]

The present study reported that the females in both groups showed better oral health behavior than male students regarding brushing twice daily which is in accordance with the study of Rahman and Kawas 2013.[11]

In this study, dental undergraduates give sufficient time for cleaning teeth 63% as compared with the medical undergraduates. Shiraz et al. in 2007 shows similar findings.[12] The dental undergraduate students used toothpaste and toothbrush for cleaning the teeth 96% as compared with the medical students, which is in accordance with the study of Shiraz et al.

It is surprising to observe that only 30% dental students and 22% medical students visited the dentist in 12 months in the present study with higher percentage in females than males. The study of Neeraja et al. and Sanketa et al. shows similar results.[3],[10]

Studies of Sanketa et al. and Ashwath et al. in 2014 showed the self-perception for halitosis was higher in females as compared to males in dental undergraduates. The present study showed similar findings.[3],[13]

In the present study, response to the awareness to the inflamed gum disease and its relation to bleeding gums have been seen more in dental students as compared with medical students (81% of dental students as compared with 63% of medical students). The findings were found to be similar to that of study done by Laxman Singh et al.[14] The study of R Neerja et al and Al-Hussaini R et al, showed that both medical and dental students were lacking the knowledge of the using interdental aids. Our study shows the similar findings.[10],[15]

The result of this study confirmed that oral health attitude and behavior related to the oral health education. The improvement in oral health among dental students is shown to be linked to their dental education experience. The medical students are not aware of oral health education. Their attitude and behavior can be modified by regular visit to dentist and motivation by medical faculty regarding oral health. Strength and limitations of study: (1) study should be carried out in nonprofessionals and (2) sample size should be more.


  Conclusion Top


Oral health attitude, knowledge, and behavior were high among the dental students as it is a part of their professional education. Students of medical profession comparatively showed poor oral health knowledge. There was lack of exposure in medical faculty regarding oral health in their curriculum. Hence, provision for oral health education must be implemented in medical curriculum. Both the medical as well as dental professional students must be encouraged to be a good role model in promoting oral health education for their families, friends, patients, and ultimately for the society.

Financial support and sponsorship

Nil.

Conflicts of interest

There are no conflicts of interest.

 
  References Top

1.
Oberoi SS, Mohanty V, Mahajan A, Oberoi A. Evaluating awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2014;18:369-74.  Back to cited text no. 1
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2.
Dagli RJ, Tadakamadla S, Dhanni C, Duraiswamy P, Kulkarni S. Self reported dental health attitude and behavior of dental students in India. J Oral Sci 2008;50:267-72.  Back to cited text no. 2
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3.
Sanketa A, Dhonge R, Zade RM, Amirisetty R, Rajesh PR. Wake up denticos! Do care your oral health! J Res Adv Dent 2015;4:235-8.  Back to cited text no. 3
    
4.
Mani PM, Swamy RM, Manjunath GN, Venkatesh G, Venkateshappa C, Naveen K. Attitude of dental students towards their oral health care. Res J Pharm Biol Chem Sci 2013;4:755-9.  Back to cited text no. 4
    
5.
Nibali L, D'Aiuto F, Griffiths G, Patel K, Suvan J, Tonetti MS. Severe periodontitis is associated with systemic inflammation and a dysmetabolic status: A case-control study. J Clin Periodontol 2007;34:931-7.  Back to cited text no. 5
    
6.
Petersen PE, Esheng Z. Dental caries and oral health behaviour situation of children, mothers and schoolteachers in Wuhan, People's Republic of China. Int Dent J 1998;48:210-6.  Back to cited text no. 6
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Al-Wahadni AM, Al-Omiri MK, Kawamura M. Differences in self-reported oral health behavior between dental students and dental technology/dental hygiene students in Jordan. J Oral Sci 2004;46:191-7.  Back to cited text no. 7
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Cortes FJ, Nevot C, Ramon JM, Cuenca E. The evolution of dental health in dental students at the University of Barcelona. J Dent Educ 2002;66:1203-8.  Back to cited text no. 8
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Almas K, Al-Malik TM, Al-Shehri MA, Skaug N. The knowledge and practices of oral hygiene methods and attendance pattern among school teachers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Saudi Med J 2003;24:1087-91.  Back to cited text no. 9
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10.
Neeraja R, Kayalvizhi G, Sangeetha P. Oral Health Attitudes and Behavior among a Group of Dental Students in Bangalore, India. Eur J Dent 2011;5:163-7.  Back to cited text no. 10
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11.
Rahman B, Kawas SA. The relationship between dental health behavior, oral hygiene and gingival status of dental students in the United Arab Emirates. Eur J Dent 2013;7:22-7.  Back to cited text no. 11
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12.
Shiraz U, Bhat SS, Sharan S. Oral health knowledge and behavior of clinical medical, dental and paramedical students in Mangalore. J Oral Health Community Dent 2007;1:46-8.  Back to cited text no. 12
    
13.
Ashwath B, Vijayalakshmi R, Maini S. Self-perceived halitosis and oral hygiene habits among undergraduate dental stuldents. J Indian Soc Periodontol 2014;18:357-60.  Back to cited text no. 13
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14.
Laxman Singh K, Virag S, Parul G, Devendra C. Oral health-related knowledge, attitude and practice among nursing students of Rohilkhand Medical College and Hospital: A questionnaire study. J Orofac Res 2012;2:20-3.  Back to cited text no. 14
    
15.
Al-Hussaini R, Al-Kandari M, Hamadi T, Al-Mutawa A, Honkala S, Memon A. Dental health knowledge, attitudes and behaviour among students at the Kuwait University Health Sciences Centre. Med Princ Pract 2003;12:260-5.  Back to cited text no. 15
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